Stability of the Antimicrobial Capacity of Human Milk Against Cronobacter Sakazakii During Handling

1 hónap 2 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundNeonatal infections with Cronobacter sakazakii have recently been associated with the consumption of expressed human milk.Study Aims(1) To evaluate whether human milk has antimicrobial capacity against C. sakazakii and (2) to determine the stability of its capacity when it is subjected to various treatments.MethodsThe antimicrobial capacity of human milk against C. sakazakii was evaluated using an observational, cross-sectional, comparative design. Mature human milk samples (N = 29) were subjected to different treatments. After incubation at 37°C for 72 hr, samples were compared with fresh milk on the stability of their antimicrobial capacity. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed.ResultsIn fresh milk, counts of C. sakazakii were reduced by 47.26% (SD = 6.74) compared to controls. In treated milk, reductions were: refrigeration at 4°C for 72 hr (M = 33.84, SD = 13.84), freezing at –20°C for 1, 2, and 3 months (M = 40.31, SD = 9.10; M = 35.96, SD = 9.39; M = 26.20, SD = 13.55, respectively), Holder pasteurization (M = 23.56, SD = 15.61), and human milk bank treatment with (M = 14.37, SD = 18.02) and without bovine fortifier (M = 3.70, SD = 23.83). There were significant differences (p < .05) between fresh and treated milk.ConclusionsHuman milk has antimicrobial capacity against C. sakazakii. However, its capacity is negatively influenced by common preservation and hygienization methods. Milk should be stored refrigerated for a maximum of 72 hr or frozen for a short period of time.
Sandra Fernández-Pastor

Community Perspectives During a Lead Contaminated Drinking Water Crisis: Lessons for Lactation and Other Health Providers

1 hónap 3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundMillions of people today live in contaminated environments. Often, these environments disproportionately affect nonwhite, racialized families who are low-income, pregnant, and/or feeding young children. Despite the overwhelming recognition among scholars and practitioners of these realities, however, few lactation or other health professionals center socially disadvantaged families’ perspectives in their work. Community expertise is therefore often absent from the credentialed lactation and associated support that tends to be advanced in contaminated environments.Research AimsThe aims of this study were to: (1) Describe how vulnerable community members experience toxic environments, and (2) Explore the strategies vulnerable community members themselves employ and seek out from professionals to achieve resilience in these environments.MethodsThe research design for this study was prospective and cross-sectional. We surveyed 62 Milwaukeean African American women of childbearing age and their close networks of support from predominantly low-income census tracts, and we engaged 14 women in a community conversation on their experiences, strategies, and desires generated from living in Milwaukee during a lead contaminated drinking water crisis.ResultsParticipants were aware and concerned about toxic poisoning in their environment, especially as it affects their children. Nonetheless, societal factors constrained their levels of preparedness and action in response, including around chestfeeding, breastfeeding, expressed milk feeding, and artificial feeding methods.ConclusionLactation providers and other health professionals can better support at-risk families by integrating their perspectives into dominant frameworks for information-sharing, preventative resource distribution, and supporting community self-determination.
Dalvery Blackwell

Being There: The Development of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, the Innocenti Declaration and the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative

1 hónap 3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Margaret Isabirye Kyenkya (photo) grew up in Uganda with five bothers and six sisters. Her Bachelor of Arts was in Social Work and Social Administration (Makerere University, Uganda), and was followed by a Masters in Sociology, (Nairobi University), and a Certificate in Mother and Child Health (International Child Health Institute, London). Her PhD focused on Hospital Administration inspired by the WHO/UNICEF Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative. She has worked as a researcher, the founder of Non-Governmental Organizations, a Senior United Nations Officer (New York Headquarters and several regions), a Manager in the United States Agency for International Development-funded National Health and Nutrition Projects, and a governmental Health and Nutrition Adviser. A certified trainer in a number of health and nutrition areas, a breastfeeding counselor, and a retired La Leche League Leader, Dr. Kyenkya has significantly influenced the course of lactation support and promotion globally. She stated, “My most precious and valued occupation is that of a mother [of five] and grandmother [of eight].” Dr. Kyenkya currently lives in Atlanta, Georgia, in the United States. (This interview was conducted in-person and transcribed verbatim. It has been edited for ease of readability. MK refers to Margaret Kyenkya; KM refers to Kathleen Marinelli.)
Margaret Isabirye Kyenkya

Perceptions, Experiences, and Outcomes of Lactation Support in the Workplace: A Systematic Literature Review

1 hónap 4 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundDespite legislation requiring break time and a private space to express milk, variations exist in accommodations for breastfeeding employees in the United States.Research AimsWe aimed to describe employee and employer perceptions of and experiences with workplace lactation support in the United States and to identify research needed to inform workplace lactation support programs.MethodsWe searched Academic Search Complete, Business Search Complete, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, and PsycInfo for peer-reviewed articles published from 2009 to 2019 (n = 1638). We included 27 articles. Studies were categorized into four non-exclusive themes: (a) employee perceptions of and experiences with workplace lactation support; (b) employer reports of workplace lactation support; (c) association between workplace lactation support and business outcomes; and (d) association between workplace lactation support and breastfeeding outcomes.ResultsAnalyses of associations between lactation support at work and employee breastfeeding outcomes (n = 14, 52%), and employee perceptions of and experiences with lactation support at work (n = 14, 52%) were most common, followed by employer reports of lactation support (n = 3, 11%) and associations between lactation support at work and job satisfaction (n = 3, 11%). Results indicated that workplace lactation support varied by employer, and that employee perceptions of and experiences with workplace lactation support varied by demographic and employment characteristics. The use of cross-sectional designs, unvalidated instruments, and limited representation from women with low incomes and minorities were common study limitations.ConclusionsMore research is needed to learn about experiences of employers and low-income and minority women with workplace lactation support and associations with business-relevant outcomes.
Yhenneko J. Taylor

Engaging African American Parents to Develop a Mobile Health Technology for Breastfeeding: KULEA-NET

1 hónap 4 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundAfrican Americans breastfeed less than other groups, which has implications for health throughout the life course. Little is known about mobile health technologies to support breastfeeding.Research aimsThis study proceeded in two phases. The aim of Phase 1 was to identify ideal technological components and content of a mobile health intervention. The aim of Phase 2 was to determine the usability of a prototype, KULEA-NET, based on the Phase 1 findings.MethodsFor this mixed-methods study, we used community-based participatory research methods and user-centered technology design methods. We used open coding in NVivo 11 to organize data from focus groups and in-depth interviews, then we analyzed the data. We then developed a prototype and tested the prototype’s usability with the System Usability Scale. Fifty pregnant and postpartum African Americans from the District of Columbia participated.ResultsParticipants preferred an app with text messaging technology and identified areas for intervention: self-efficacy, parent-child attachment beliefs, social support, public breastfeeding and social desirability, and returning to work. Desired features included local resources, support person access, baby care logs, identification of public breastfeeding venues, and peer discussions. The System Usability Scale score was 73.8, which indicates above average usability.ConclusionsA mobile health technology like KULEA-NET can be used to meet the breastfeeding needs of African Americans, build social desirability, and complement traditional health care. The appeal of an African American-specific intervention is unclear. Responding to mixed feeding practices is challenging. KULEA-NET is a mobile breastfeeding intervention guided by the preferences of African American parents and offers promising usability metrics.
Loral Patchen

Implementation of the Reimbursement Cost of Human-Milk-Based Neonatal Therapy in Polish Health Care Service: Practical and Ethical Background

2 hónap 1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundA human-milk-based diet is the best option for nutritional therapy for preterm and/or sick newborns.Research aimThe study aims were to restructure the reimbursement rates to hospitals in Poland for infants’ tube feedings to favor the use of donor human milk over formula for newborns who required supplementation of expressed mother’s milk and evaluate the results of the financing change during the first year of implementation (2018).MethodsFinancial data from hospitals were collected (2015–2016) by the Human Milk Bank Foundation using a data sheet designed by the Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System. We used data to restructure the reimbursement rates to hospitals for infants’ tube feedings and implemented the changes in late 2017. The National Health Fund was requested to share reported data in 2018 concerning tube feeding services.ResultsMore than half (61%) of NICUs introduced human milk tube feeding for newborns. It was provided to participants (N = 5,530), most frequently to seriously ill preterm infants (66.6%). Of these infants, 2,323 were fed donor human milk. Only 1,925 newborns received formula tube feeding. However, there were large differences in frequency of services reported among various parts of the country.ConclusionsBased on our knowledge, Poland is the only European country where the reimbursement cost for human-milk-based nutritional therapy has been implemented in a manner intended to increase the quality of health care services for preterm newborns. Equal reimbursement for expressed mother’s milk and donor milk did not appear to cause overuse of donor milk based on our analysis of the 2018 data.
Aleksandra Wesolowska

Associations Between Variations in Breast Anatomy and Early Breastfeeding Challenges

2 hónap 1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundMothers with anatomic variability (e.g., shorter, wider nipples; denser areolas) may experience breastfeeding challenges disproportionately.Research aimTo examine whether variations in breast anatomy are associated with risk for early breastfeeding challenges.MethodsParticipants included mothers < 6 weeks postpartum. Nipple base width, nipple length, and areolar density were measured on the right and left breast separately. Experiences with early breastfeeding challenges were determined through a combination of maternal report and clinical assessment.ResultsParticipants (N = 119) had an average nipple diameter of 23.4 (SD = 3.0) mm for left nipples and 23.5 (SD = 3.0) mm for right nipples (range = 10–34 mm). Average nipple length was 8.5 (SD = 3.2) mm for left breasts and 9.1 (SD = 3.2) mm for right breasts (range = 5–20 mm); 35% of participants had dense areolas on the left breast and 36% had dense areolas on the right breast. The combination of wider and longer nipples was associated with greater risk for difficulties with latch; the combination of wider nipples and denser areolas was associated with greater risk for sore nipples. For participants with more dense areolas, shorter and wider nipples were associated with greater risk for low milk supply and slow infant weight gain. For participants with less dense areolas, longer and wider nipples were associated with greater risk for low milk supply and slow infant weight gain.ConclusionFurther research is needed to understand how measures of breast anatomy can be used to guide targeted intervention efforts.
Alison K. Ventura

Which Australian Women Do Not Exclusively Breastfeed to 6 Months, and why?

2 hónap 1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundRates of exclusive breastfeeding in Australia lag behind international targets. Reasons for non-exclusive breastfeeding are poorly understood.Research aimsTo describe demographic profiles of participants reporting different feeding practices, and reasons for not exclusively breastfeeding to 6 months.MethodsDemographics for 2888 mothers (5340 children) and reasons for 1879 mothers (3018 children) from the Mothers and Their Children’s Health Study (a sub-study of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health) were examined using descriptive statistics and multivariable regression.ResultsOnly 34.4% of children were exclusively breastfed to 6 months. Five non-exclusive feeding practices were identified: never breastfed (3.9%), breastfed < 6 months (20.8%), and breastfed to 6 months but had formula (6.8%), solids (24.5%), or both formula and solids (9.7%). Mothers of children who received < 6 months of human milk were more likely to have a lower education, be overweight/obese, smoke, and live in cities (compared to mothers of children exclusively breastfed). Reasons for never breastfeeding and for breastfeeding < 6 months were primarily insufficient milk and breastfeeding difficulties (e.g., latching issues). Reasons for introducing solids were primarily cues for solids (e.g., showing interest). Reasons for formula were insufficient milk and practical considerations (e.g., return to work). Reasons for both solids and formula were diverse, including insufficient milk, weaning cues, and practical considerations.ConclusionsMothers who did not exclusively breastfeed to 6 months were a heterogeneous group, indicating that both targeted and universal strategies are required to increase rates of exclusive breastfeeding. Support should encompass the broad range of feeding practices.
Katrina M. Moss

The Origin of ‘Formula’: State of the Science, 1890s

2 hónap 1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
In 1900, 13% of infants in the United States died before their first birthday, most of dehydration from diarrhea. As part of a nationwide effort to “save the babies,” pediatricians focused on several endeavors—experimenting with commercially made infant-food products; working with dairy farmers to clean up cows’ milk; lobbying to pass municipal and state legislation regulating the dairy industry; and devising mathematical “formulas” that represented instructions to chemists on how to “humanize” cows’ milk for the needs of a particular infant. Pediatricians dubbed the latter endeavor “percentage feeding” and, from the 1890s to the 1920s, they deemed percentage feeding a lifesaving scientific achievement. The complex, virtually infinite array of mathematical formulas that comprised this infant-feeding system is the origin of the word “formula” as used today to describe artificial baby milk.
Jacqueline H. Wolf

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Table of Contents for Journal of Human Lactation. List of articles from ahead of print issues.
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