Prenatal Provider Breastfeeding Toolkit: Results of a Pilot to Increase Women’s Prenatal Breastfeeding Support, Intentions, and Outcomes

1 hét 2 nap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundBreastfeeding rates for United States women with lower incomes fall below the government’s Healthy People 2020 Goals. Breastfeeding recommendations combined with support from providers and peer counselors help women decide to begin and sustain breastfeeding, but peer counselor uptake is low.Research AimTo evaluate changes in referrals to Women, Infants, and Children’s Supplemental Nutrition Program peer counselors, reported prenatal provider education and support, and breastfeeding outcomes (intention, initiation, 1-month duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding) after a prenatal breastfeeding promotion intervention.MethodIn this pre-post intervention study (2015–2016; upstate New York), providers implemented a Toolkit to discuss infant feeding recommendations and initiate peer counselor referral. We surveyed women pre- and post-implementation (after delivery; 1 month postpartum) about prenatal breastfeeding intentions, provider support, and breastfeeding outcomes. Analyses controlled for secular trends.ResultsPre-intervention (n = 71) and post-intervention (n = 70) participants were 49% Black, 61% publicly insured, and 16% uninsured. More post-intervention participants had > 1 Toolkit use (76%), peer counselor program referrals (60.0% post vs. 36.6% pre, p < .01), reported any breastfeeding intention (89% vs. 72%, p = .013), and intended to breastfeed for > 1 year (31% vs. 14%, p = .014). Post-intervention breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity were higher, but not significantly different. Post-intervention participants reported better prenatal breastfeeding support.ConclusionsImplementing a prenatal Breastfeeding Toolkit, including facilitating peer counselor referral, was associated with increases in provider counseling, participants’ breastfeeding intentions, and uptake of peer counselors. Replicating this approach may reinforce efforts to support breastfeeding in similar practices serving women with lower incomes.
Casey Rosen-Carole

Compliance With the “Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative for Neonatal Wards” in Russian Hospitals

1 hét 2 nap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundThe expansion of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative to neonatal wards, known as the Neo-BFHI, provides recommendations to support breastfeeding, as outlined in the Three Guiding Principles, the expanded Ten Steps, and the International Code for Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes. In 2017, Russia participated in an international survey about compliance with the Neo-BFHI.Research AimTo assess breastfeeding support policies and practices in Russian neonatal wards at the country and federal district level in accordance with the Neo-BFHI recommendations.MethodsThis study was a prospective cross-sectional survey. We used the Neo-BFHI Self-Assessment questionnaire to collect data from neonatal wards that had all levels of care. A total of N = 60 Russian neonatal wards in hospitals that have ever been designated Baby-Friendly or planned to do so participated in the survey.ResultsCompliance scores at the federal district and country level ranging from 0–100 were used to summarize results. The median country overall score was 90 (IQR = 83 – 93). Respect for mothers, continuity of care, having a breastfeeding policy, and rooming-in had the highest median scores. Family-centered care, antenatal informing, skin-to-skin contact, and human milk use had the lowest median scores. Neonatal wards in the hospitals that were ever designated as Baby-Friendly had significantly higher scores than those that were never designated. Most respondents (n = 48, 80%) expressed a desire to obtain Neo-BFHI designation in their neonatal wards.ConclusionNeo-BFHI recommendations can be successfully implemented in Russian neonatal wards at hospitals designated Baby-Friendly or planning to be designated.
Liubov V. Abolyan

Attitudes and Views Concerning Human Milk Banking Among Mothers Residing in a Rural Region of Bangladesh

1 hét 4 nap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundHuman milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive mother’s milk.Study aimTo determine the opinions and attitudes among possible donor mothers regarding human milk banks in one rural region in Bangladesh.MethodsA prospective, cross-sectional study following a probability type of stratified cluster sampling technique was used. Included in the study (N = 121) were mothers aged 20–49 years, with at least one child, who was currently lactating or had breastfed her child, and who resided in the rural community of Bangladesh where the study was conducted. Data were collected through a 21-item, close-ended questionnaire and a face-to-face interview conducted by the researcher at each participant’s home.ResultsAmong the participants, 98.3% (n = 119) said that they had not heard about human milk banks before speaking with the researchers. Most participants (71.9%, n = 87) said would obtain human milk from milk banks if necessary, but 28% (n =34) of mothers indicated that they would not receive milk from a milk bank, even if it was necessary for their children. Only 8.3% (n = 10) said human milk banks were not appropriate according to Islam and 99.2% (n = 120) did not know about the acceptance of human milk banking practices in Bangladesh.ConclusionsFor those with religious concerns, a framework for both the donors and recipients can be established. It can be recommended that health education through healthcare personnel (midwives, nurses, gynecologists, pediatricians, and other health professionals) and religious leaders may strengthen the belief and increase awareness among family members about milk banking practices.
Yasmin Jahan

Exploring the Efficacy of Comprehensive Management of Breast Abscesses in Restoring Milk Volume

1 hét 5 nap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundApproximately 54.8% of patients with breast abscesses discontinue breastfeeding due to the lack of adequate breastfeeding support.Research aimsWe aimed to (1) examine the difference in milk volume produced by healthy breasts and breasts with abscesses; and (2) to explore the changes in milk volume before and after comprehensive management.MethodA prospective, consecutive series study was designed. Lactating patients (N = 50) with breast abscesses were selected from March 2017 to November 2018. The volume and frequency of milk expression of the affected and the unaffected breast were recorded every 24 hr before and after comprehensive management. The difference in the milk volume produced by healthy breasts (control) and breasts with abscesses, as well as the milk volume produced by each breast before and after comprehensive management, was determined.ResultsThere was a significant difference in the milk volume produced by healthy breasts and breasts with abscess before (t = 3.016; p = .004) and after (t = 4.336; p < .001) comprehensive management. The frequency of milk expression was significantly higher after comprehensive management than before it (z = −6.145; p < .001); the milk volume produced by each side significantly increased after comprehensive management (healthy breasts: t = −4.789; p < .001; breasts with abscess: t = 2.555; p = .014).ConclusionThe total milk volume produced by breasts with abscesses can be less than that produced by healthy breasts. The management of abscesses by increasing the frequency of milk expression and degree of emptying can help mothers increase their milk volume.
Gao Haifeng

In Vitro Stimulation of Whole Milk Specimens: A Field-Friendly Method to Assess Milk Immune Activity

2 hét 2 nap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundThe immune system of milk protects against infections and guides immune system development. A system-level understanding of milk immune activity is critical for research into infant infectious disease risk and lifelong health.Research aimTo describe a protocol to characterize immune activity in human milk via in vitro stimulation for use in population-based (rather than clinical) research.MethodsThis study proceeded in two phases, each with a cross-sectional design. Human milk specimens were incubated for 24 hr at 37 °C in mammalian cell culture medium with stimuli (e.g., Salmonella enterica) in a CO2-enriched environment. Immune responses to stimuli were characterized as the change in cytokine: [stimulated]/[baseline]. Predictors of cytokine responses were evaluated with generalized linear models.ResultsPatterns were detectable across mother–child dyads: Interleukin-6 responses to stimuli were generally positively associated with child age and with maternal autoimmune disease.ConclusionsOur method allows characterization of pro-inflammatory milk immune activity in vitro in population-based (rather than clinical) research settings. In vitro activity has a system-level interpretation and is likely to be of broad utility in global health research in settings with high infectious disease risk, where understanding the immune system of milk is critical to understanding maternal and child health.
Katherine Wander

Tandem Breastfeeding and Human Milk Macronutrients: A Prospective Observational Study

3 hét 5 nap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundTandem breastfeeding is defined as two or more offspring of different ages who are breastfed by their mother at the same time. Breastfeeding during pregnancy and tandem breastfeeding have not been widely investigated.Research AimTo determine the influence of tandem breastfeeding on the macronutrient content of human milk.MethodsThis longitudinal study used a prospective and a retrospective group. Human milk samples from tandem-breastfeeding participants (n = 18) were compared to samples from non-tandem-breastfeeding participants (n = 31). Samples were collected during the last month of pregnancy (pregnancy milk), 72 hr after birth (colostrum) and 14–60 days post-delivery (mature milk). Macronutrients were measured by mid-infrared spectroscopy.ResultsFat content in pregnancy milk was lower than in mature milk (p < .01). Protein content was higher in pregnancy milk than in colostrum and mature milk (p < .01 and p < .001, respectively). Inversely, carbohydrate content in pregnancy milk was lower than in colostrum and mature milk (p = .02 and p < .01, respectively). Fat and energy contents in pregnancy milk of tandem-breastfeeding participants were lower than in mature milk of non-tandem-breastfeeding participants (p < .001 and p < .01, respectively), and protein content was higher than in mature milk (p < .001). Carbohydrate content in colostrum and mature milk of tandem-breastfeeding participants was higher than that of non-tandem-breastfeeding participants (p < .001 for both).ConclusionHuman milk produced during pregnancy had different macronutrient content than human milk produced after delivery. Colostrum and mature milk of tandem-breastfeeding participants were similar to human milk produced by non-tandem-breastfeeding participants, with the exception of carbohydrate content.
Gilad Rosenberg

Breastfeeding During a Pandemic: The Influence of COVID-19 on Lactation Services in the Northeastern United States

4 hét 1 nap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundPandemic-related restrictions have limited traditional models of lactation support.Research AimsThe primary aim of this study was to determine changes to breastfeeding support services during the coronavirus-2019 pandemic according to trained lactation providers. The secondary aim was to assess strengths and limitations of telehealth services.MethodsA prospective survey was conducted entirely online using the Qualtrics platform during June 2020. Gatekeepers at Connecticut agencies and breastfeeding networks were forwarded an anonymous survey link to distribute to eligible lactation staff.ResultsA variety of participants (N = 39) completed the survey and the majority (69.2%; n = 27) were providing only telehealth services. More than half (58.1%; n = 18) of the participants who conducting telehealth in any form, found that virtual lactation support was moderately effective compared to in-person support. Weakness of virtual support included technical and logistical difficulties, challenges assisting with latching or reading body language over the phone or online, and accurately assessing infant growth. Strengths related to virtual support included the flexibility and convenience of home-based support, expanded communication strategies, and safety from virus exposure. Further, visits with a lactation professional decreased significantly during the pandemic. Limited in-hospital and pediatrician support were also noted, particularly among groups without access to telehealth resources.ConclusionsAs a result of the pandemic and associated shifts in lactation services, breastfeeding disparities may be further exacerbated among those without equitable access to lactation support. Challenges and innovations in virtual support may influence adaptive options in the field moving forward.
Jennifer Schindler-Ruwisch

Maternal Worry About Infant Weight and its Influence on Artificial Milk Supplementation and Breastfeeding Cessation

1 hónap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundMaternal worry about infant weight has inconsistently been reported as a breastfeeding barrier. Weight monitoring is a critical tool to assess adequacy of infant feeding. Yet, little is known about the intensity of maternal worry about infant weight or associated breastfeeding outcomes.Research aimsTo examine (1) the frequency and intensity of maternal worry about infant weight; (2) the relationship between worry about weight and use of artificial milk; and 3) the relationship between worry about weight and breastfeeding cessation.MethodsA prospective cross-sectional design was used. A questionnaire was completed by women in the United States (N = 287) from 12 web-based maternal support groups.ResultsSixty-three percent of women (n = 182) had some worry about infant weight. Participants breastfeeding for the first time had more worry (p = .035). Participants still breastfeeding had less worry about weight compared to those who had stopped (67%, n = 147 vs. 41%, n = 28). Exclusive breastfeeding participants had less worry (p < .001) compared to those who supplemented with artificial milk. Increased worry was associated with the use of artificial milk within 1 week of birth (p < .001) and early breastfeeding cessation (p < .001).ConclusionsWorry about weight is a significant breastfeeding barrier. It is associated with first time breastfeeding, less exclusive breastfeeding, use of artificial milk, and earlier breastfeeding cessation. Lactating mothers need anticipatory guidance about expected neonatal weight changes and interventions to help relieve worry about infant weight.
Diane DiTomasso

An Intergenerational Exploration of Breastfeeding Journeys Through the Lens of African American Mothers and Grandmothers

1 hónap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundMany individuals comprise a nursing mother’s social support network. Grandmothers within African American families, historically, have played a vital role in the transmission of culture. Understanding intergenerational perspectives within African American families related to infant feeding and scholarship about breastfeeding is critical, given the breastfeeding patterns among African American women.Research aimTo describe intergenerational perspectives within African American families, where the mother has successfully breastfed.MethodsA prospective, cross-sectional, qualitative design using semi-structured interviews was used. African American nursing mothers and maternal grandmothers (N = 14) residing in the Metro–St. Louis area, who reflected economic and educational diversity, were recruited. Inductive and iterative data analysis, framed by Black Feminist Theory allowed for emerging patterns reflecting the participants’ voices.ResultsThree of the six (50%) grandmother participants had breastfed. The majority of the mother participants were married (n = 5; 62.5%) and had a college degree (n = 4; 50.0%) or a high school diploma (n = 1; 12.5%); and four (50.0%) had received the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Three patterns emerged: (a) intergenerational connections; (b) changes in breastfeeding experiences over time; and (c) going with the flow (referring to the choice to work within the constraints of one’s circumstances). Grandmothers supported mothers’ breastfeeding decisions; grandmothers who had breastfed benefited from the updated information the mothers provided; and grandmothers who did not breastfeed acquired new breastfeeding knowledge, which informed the ways they supported the mothers.ConclusionThe intergenerational perspectives surrounding breastfeeding within African American families participating in this study offer future research directions.
Mary M. Muse

Conditions of Boarded Out Babies of Wet-Nurses, Colonial Australia

1 hónap 1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Wet-nurses themselves rarely left written accounts. In this article, I have reconstructed their experiences and work situations breastfeeding other women’s infants in colonial Australia through examining available sources concerning their employment situations and the fate of their infants when they were boarded out, as they commonly were. The employment of wet-nurses by royal households or prominent families has long been the topic of historical accounts, whereas the situation of the more numerous wet-nurses further down the social spectrum has received disproportionately little examination. In this article, I do not discuss informal, altruistic wet nursing by family or neighbors but, rather, the situation of those women for whom it was an occupation, by its very nature short term. Primary material sighted for this study included a considerable number of advertisements for positions placed by employers, their intermediaries (e.g., family physicians) and wet-nurses themselves, and newspaper reports when the wet-nurse’s children came to the attention of the courts. Death for boarded-out infants who succumbed to inappropriate feeding and substandard care was typically ascribed to “natural causes.”
Virginia Thorley


16 óra 16 perc ago
Table of Contents for Journal of Human Lactation. List of articles from ahead of print issues.
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