Breastfeeding Protection, Promotion, and Support in Humanitarian Emergencies: A Systematic Review of Literature

3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Infants, young children, and their mothers are vulnerable in humanitarian emergencies. The health benefits of optimal breastfeeding practices in emergency settings have been demonstrated by many researchers. Infant and Young Children Feeding in Emergency guidelines illustrate a series of interventions to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding, but unfortunately, these recommendations are still scarcely applied.Research Aims:(1) To review the literature describing the effectiveness of breastfeeding protection, promotion, and support interventions in humanitarian emergency contexts; (2) to describe the influence of interventions on breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and duration; and (3) to evaluate relevant mother and infant/child outcomes available in the literature.Methods:PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Psychology Database, JSTOR, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Ovid were searched for articles that examined breastfeeding protection, promotion, or support interventions and the resulting outcomes without any time limits (N = 10). Articles that did not include the interventions and related outcomes were excluded (n = 1,391).Results:Improved breastfeeding outcomes were reported in four (40%) papers, and three (30%) highlighted a behavioral change in infant and young child feeding practices following the implementation of the interventions. Increased knowledge about appropriate infant and young child feeding practices among mothers and humanitarian/health staff was reported in eight (80%) papers. However, outcomes were sometimes only generically reported, and some of the included papers had a low strength of evidence.Conclusion:In the literature, there is a great dearth of studies evaluating the influence of interventions aimed at improving breastfeeding in emergency settings. More evidence is urgently needed to encourage and implement optimal breastfeeding practices.
Immacolata Dall’Oglio

Cost Analysis of Operating a Human Milk Bank in China

1 hónap 2 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Establishing a human milk bank for the benefit of premature newborns who are unable to receive their mothers’ milk for various reasons is a common initiative. To date, 19 human milk banks have been established in China; however, data associated with human milk banks are lacking, including information on the operational costs, guidelines, and regulatory systems for human milk banks in China.Research Aim:Our study aim was to conduct a cost analysis for the human milk bank at Shanghai Children’s Hospital.Methods:A management accounting approach, based on the activity-based costing method, was used to develop a cost model for donor human milk. The data were collected retrospectively and included budget plans, financial and expenditure reports, databases, and interviews with the staff and managers at the Shanghai Children’s Hospital Human Milk Bank in 2017.Results:In 2017, the total volume of qualified donor human milk was 933.70 L, of which 842.71 L (90%) was frozen and 90.99 L (10%) was freshly donated on site. The total annual cost to provide milk for 212 high-risk infants in 2017 was US$156,923, and the unit cost was US$168/L.Conclusions:The operating costs of human milk banks in China are similar to those in other countries internationally, but these costs are so large that they require government and society support for funding and milk donation. Therefore, ongoing breastfeeding support for mothers and measures to reduce the operating costs of human milk banks should be advocated.
Cun Daili

The Influence of Donor Milk Supplementation on Duration of Parenteral Nutrition in Preterm Infants

1 hónap 2 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Data are limited on the association between the use of donor human milk and improvements in feeding tolerance.Objective:To determine the influence of the duration of parenteral nutrition on the growth and morbidity of the breastfed newborn when using donated human milk in the absence of mother’s own milk.Methods:We conducted a retrospective study before and after the intervention that compared two groups of newborns (N = 284; each group n = 142). We used a convenience sample of all newborns ≤32 weeks gestation consecutively admitted in a single unit before (Group 1 between December 2012 and May 2014) or after (Group 2 between October 2014 and December 2016) the availability of donor human milk. In Group 2, donor human milk was administered at least 3 to 4 weeks or until the baby weighed 1,500 g. Weight was recorded daily and length and head circumference weekly. Parenteral nutrition was continued until enteral feeding volume reached 120 ml/kg/day. Additional variables measured were the number of days with a central venous catheter, age that the enteral feeding volume reached 150 ml/kg/day, and duration of stay.Results:The duration of parenteral feeding was the same before and after: 12 (8.23) and 11 (7.19) days (p = .822). The z scores for weight and height of newborns was lower in Group 2 = −1.8 (1.0) and −2.3 (1.1) and Group 1 = −1.2 (1.1) (p < .001) and −1.8 (1.4) (p = .005).Conclusion:We did not find an association between the administration of donor human milk as a supplement to mother’s own milk and reduced number of days of parenteral nutrition.Back translation by Laurence Grummer-Strawn
Bibiana Chinea Jiménez

Factors Affecting the Behavior and Duration of Breastfeeding Among Physician Mothers

1 hónap 3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Increasing breastfeeding duration may help physician mothers better counsel their patients. To improve the breastfeeding duration of physician mothers, the factors that may influence their breastfeeding duration should be known.Research Aim:To investigate the breastfeeding behavior and duration among physician mothers and to determine the factors that influence breastfeeding practices.Methods:This was an online prospective cross-sectional self-report survey. A 26-item author-created data-collecting tool inquiring sociodemographic and work characteristics, medical history of delivery, and breastfeeding history was sent to female physicians who had infants between 12 and 60 months of age via an online social group, “Physician Mothers,” with 11,632 members. Participants (N = 615) responded, and descriptive statistics were analyzed.Results:Participants’ mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 4.8 months (SD = 1.9). The total breastfeeding length was a mean 15.8 months (SD = 7.6). The rate of breastfeeding duration for at least 24 months was 17.8% (n = 75). The most common reason for weaning from breastfeeding was workplace-related conditions (23.6%, n = 145). Participants reported that the mean time of resuming night shifts after delivery was 8.6 months (SD = 4.7). The rate of participants who were unable to use their breastfeeding leave rights partially or completely was 43.6% (n = 268).Conclusion:Although legislation is in place to allow working mothers to breastfeed their infants, these legal rights were not used properly. Physician mothers should be fully supported in using their breastfeeding leave rights, and workplace conditions should be improved to enable physician mothers to breastfeed their infants for extended periods.
Gamze Ersen

Induced Lactation in a Mother Through Surrogacy With Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS)

1 hónap 3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Introduction:Breastfeeding offers the optimal feeding option for newborns in terms of nutritional content and reinforces mother-infant bonding. As a physiological process intrinsically linked to parturition, breastfeeding is no longer reserved for puerperal mothers. Progress in understanding the intricacies of lactogenesis and breastfeeding has further paved the way for artificially induced lactation in recent years.Main issues:We describe the case of a mother through surrogacy with XY karyotype and complete androgen insensitivity syndrome who wished to breastfeed her child.Management:Through a combination of estrogen therapy, galactagogues, and mechanical breast stimulation she was able to partially breastfeed her child for one month.Conclusion:This case further shifts the concept that breastfeeding is a physiological process confined to only puerperal mothers and offers an opportunity to a wider group of nontraditional mothers to take part in the unique experience of breastfeeding.
Magdalena LeCain

An Evaluation of On-Campus Lactation Spaces for Student-Parents

1 hónap 3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Numerous researchers have evaluated the influence of federal and workplace lactation policies on breastfeeding duration, however few have considered the experiences of breastfeeding people returning to school.Research aim:The aim of this study was to evaluate the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of existing on-campus lactation spaces.Methods:In-depth interviews were conducted with student-parents (N = 18) who had expressed milk on campus. Data collection and thematic analysis were based on the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality framework for evaluating health services from the human rights literature and adapted for this study.Results:For most participants with proximal access to a designated lactation space, room availability was exceptional and quality was marginally adequate. The provision of breast pumps, in-room sinks, and study desks were important aspects of quality discussed by the participants. Not all participants made use of the university’s designated lactation spaces due to either physical or informational inaccessibility. If designated lactation spaces were not convenient, participants found closer alternatives (e.g., bathroom, staff offices, or during the academic session).Conclusion:Breastfeeding parents who return to school experience obstacles similar to those reported by employed parents who return to work. They require convenient access to appropriate spaces and sufficient privacy to express milk for their infants. In order to best support all learners, university leaders must consider the needs of this unique student population.
Catherine Sturtevant

Women Living With HIV in High Income Countries and the Deeper Meaning of Breastfeeding Avoidance: A Metasynthesis

1 hónap 3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Recommendations to avoid breastfeeding for women living with HIV in high income countries has resulted in a gap in the literature on how healthcare professionals can provide the highest standard of lactation counseling.Research aims:(1) Describe social and emotional experiences of infant feeding for women living with HIV in high income countries; (2) raise ethical considerations surrounding the clinical recommendation in high income countries to avoid breastfeeding.Methods:A systematic literature search was conducted between January 1, 2008 and June 20, 2019. A total of 900 papers were screened and six met the inclusion criteria: (a) the sample was drawn from a high-income country regardless of the nativity of participants; (b) some or all participants were women living with HIV. Metasynthesis, according to Noblit and Hare (1988), was used to synthesize the experiences of women living with HIV in high-income countries and their experiences in infant feeding decisions.Results:Participants in this sample suffered a substantial emotional burden associated with infant feeding experiences potentially leading to risk of internalized stigma, suggesting that infant feeding considerations may contribute to HIV stigma in unique ways. Four overarching themes were identified expressing the meaning of avoidance of breastfeeding: maternal self-worth, deculturalization, surveillance, and intersectionality.Conclusion:Women in high-income countries living with HIV deserve the highest standard of lactation care and counseling available. Healthcare professionals in high-income countries are ethically obligated to provide evidenced-based lactation care and counseling to women living with HIV.
Michele K. Griswold

Women Living With HIV in High Income Countries and the Deeper Meaning of Breastfeeding Avoidance: A Metasynthesis

1 hónap 3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Recommendations to avoid breastfeeding for women living with HIV in high income countries has resulted in a gap in the literature on how healthcare professionals can provide the highest standard of lactation counseling.Research aims:(1) Describe social and emotional experiences of infant feeding for women living with HIV in high income countries; (2) raise ethical considerations surrounding the clinical recommendation in high income countries to avoid breastfeeding.Methods:A systematic literature search was conducted between January 1, 2008 and June 20, 2019. A total of 900 papers were screened and six met the inclusion criteria: (a) the sample was drawn from a high-income country regardless of the nativity of participants; (b) some or all participants were women living with HIV. Metasynthesis, according to Noblit and Hare (1988), was used to synthesize the experiences of women living with HIV in high-income countries and their experiences in infant feeding decisions.Results:Participants in this sample suffered a substantial emotional burden associated with infant feeding experiences potentially leading to risk of internalized stigma, suggesting that infant feeding considerations may contribute to HIV stigma in unique ways. Four overarching themes were identified expressing the meaning of avoidance of breastfeeding: maternal self-worth, deculturalization, surveillance, and intersectionality.Conclusion:Women in high-income countries living with HIV deserve the highest standard of lactation care and counseling available. Healthcare professionals in high-income countries are ethically obligated to provide evidenced-based lactation care and counseling to women living with HIV.
Michele K. Griswold

An Evaluation of On-Campus Lactation Spaces for Student-Parents

1 hónap 3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Numerous researchers have evaluated the influence of federal and workplace lactation policies on breastfeeding duration, however few have considered the experiences of breastfeeding people returning to school.Research aim:The aim of this study was to evaluate the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of existing on-campus lactation spaces.Methods:In-depth interviews were conducted with student-parents (N = 18) who had expressed milk on campus. Data collection and thematic analysis were based on the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality framework for evaluating health services from the human rights literature and adapted for this study.Results:For most participants with proximal access to a designated lactation space, room availability was exceptional and quality was marginally adequate. The provision of breast pumps, in-room sinks, and study desks were important aspects of quality discussed by the participants. Not all participants made use of the university’s designated lactation spaces due to either physical or informational inaccessibility. If designated lactation spaces were not convenient, participants found closer alternatives (e.g., bathroom, staff offices, or during the academic session).Conclusion:Breastfeeding parents who return to school experience obstacles similar to those reported by employed parents who return to work. They require convenient access to appropriate spaces and sufficient privacy to express milk for their infants. In order to best support all learners, university leaders must consider the needs of this unique student population.
Catherine Sturtevant

Factors Affecting the Behavior and Duration of Breastfeeding Among Physician Mothers

1 hónap 3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Increasing breastfeeding duration may help physician mothers better counsel their patients. To improve the breastfeeding duration of physician mothers, the factors that may influence their breastfeeding duration should be known.Research Aim:To investigate the breastfeeding behavior and duration among physician mothers and to determine the factors that influence breastfeeding practices.Methods:This was an online prospective cross-sectional self-report survey. A 26-item author-created data-collecting tool inquiring sociodemographic and work characteristics, medical history of delivery, and breastfeeding history was sent to female physicians who had infants between 12 and 60 months of age via an online social group, “Physician Mothers,” with 11,632 members. Participants (N = 615) responded, and descriptive statistics were analyzed.Results:Participants’ mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 4.8 months (SD = 1.9). The total breastfeeding length was a mean 15.8 months (SD = 7.6). The rate of breastfeeding duration for at least 24 months was 17.8% (n = 75). The most common reason for weaning from breastfeeding was workplace-related conditions (23.6%, n = 145). Participants reported that the mean time of resuming night shifts after delivery was 8.6 months (SD = 4.7). The rate of participants who were unable to use their breastfeeding leave rights partially or completely was 43.6% (n = 268).Conclusion:Although legislation is in place to allow working mothers to breastfeed their infants, these legal rights were not used properly. Physician mothers should be fully supported in using their breastfeeding leave rights, and workplace conditions should be improved to enable physician mothers to breastfeed their infants for extended periods.
Gamze Ersen

Induced Lactation in a Mother Through Surrogacy With Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS)

1 hónap 3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Introduction:Breastfeeding offers the optimal feeding option for newborns in terms of nutritional content and reinforces mother-infant bonding. As a physiological process intrinsically linked to parturition, breastfeeding is no longer reserved for puerperal mothers. Progress in understanding the intricacies of lactogenesis and breastfeeding has further paved the way for artificially induced lactation in recent years.Main issues:We describe the case of a mother through surrogacy with XY karyotype and complete androgen insensitivity syndrome who wished to breastfeed her child.Management:Through a combination of estrogen therapy, galactagogues, and mechanical breast stimulation she was able to partially breastfeed her child for one month.Conclusion:This case further shifts the concept that breastfeeding is a physiological process confined to only puerperal mothers and offers an opportunity to a wider group of nontraditional mothers to take part in the unique experience of breastfeeding.
Magdalena LeCain

Ankyloglossia Identification, Diagnosis, and Frenotomy: A Qualitative Study of Community Referral Pathways

2 hónap 1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Researchers and practitioners continue to debate the most appropriate assessment, diagnostic, and treatment practices for ankyloglossia (tongue-tie). Health care workers struggle to provide evidence-based care in the absence of consistent standards.Research aim:The aims of this pilot study were to qualitatively (a) evaluate the knowledge of, and attitudes toward tongue-tie and (b) describe how they shaped referral pathways and the establishment of practice patterns of frontline practitioners (pediatric dentists, speech-language pathologists, pediatric chiropractors, and International Board Certified Lactation Consultants).Methods:We recruited clinicians (N = 9) using nonprobability purposive sampling. Participants were interviewed using survey schedules adjusted to reflect their specialty area. Semistructured interviews were transcribed and coded using manual and inductive coding techniques common in grounded theory. Themes were iteratively developed using memoing techniques, in which observations and potential concepts were recorded using the aforementioned codes.Results:Participants were familiar with a variety of protocols and assessment tools, but did not consistently use them. No formal training about the management of tongue-tie was received through their degree programs. Instead they pursued self-guided study. Interprofessional consensus guided opinions about tongue-tie best practices, and referral pathways reflected these consensuses. International Board Certified Lactation Consultants were viewed as pivotal to the care of infants with tongue-tie while primary care physicians—primarily pediatricians—were omitted from referral pathways.Conclusion:Lack of formalized training, professional consensus about best practices, and insufficient resources for assessing and treating tongue-tie led participants to incomplete referral pathways and personal interpretations of the data through the lens of anecdotal evidence.
Crystal Unger

Ankyloglossia Identification, Diagnosis, and Frenotomy: A Qualitative Study of Community Referral Pathways

2 hónap 2 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Researchers and practitioners continue to debate the most appropriate assessment, diagnostic, and treatment practices for ankyloglossia (tongue-tie). Health care workers struggle to provide evidence-based care in the absence of consistent standards.Research aim:The aims of this pilot study were to qualitatively (a) evaluate the knowledge of, and attitudes toward tongue-tie and (b) describe how they shaped referral pathways and the establishment of practice patterns of frontline practitioners (pediatric dentists, speech-language pathologists, pediatric chiropractors, and International Board Certified Lactation Consultants).Methods:We recruited clinicians (N = 9) using nonprobability purposive sampling. Participants were interviewed using survey schedules adjusted to reflect their specialty area. Semistructured interviews were transcribed and coded using manual and inductive coding techniques common in grounded theory. Themes were iteratively developed using memoing techniques, in which observations and potential concepts were recorded using the aforementioned codes.Results:Participants were familiar with a variety of protocols and assessment tools, but did not consistently use them. No formal training about the management of tongue-tie was received through their degree programs. Instead they pursued self-guided study. Interprofessional consensus guided opinions about tongue-tie best practices, and referral pathways reflected these consensuses. International Board Certified Lactation Consultants were viewed as pivotal to the care of infants with tongue-tie while primary care physicians—primarily pediatricians—were omitted from referral pathways.Conclusion:Lack of formalized training, professional consensus about best practices, and insufficient resources for assessing and treating tongue-tie led participants to incomplete referral pathways and personal interpretations of the data through the lens of anecdotal evidence.
Crystal Unger

Disparities in Breastfeeding Among Military Veterans

2 hónap 2 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Although breastfeeding is a major public health priority and provides numerous benefits, women veterans encounter many barriers to initiating and sustaining breastfeeding. Women veterans are a growing population with unique health care needs related to exposures and injuries experienced during military service. These military experiences are linked to health diagnoses known to impact postpartum health behaviors, such as breastfeeding.Research aim:The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with breastfeeding at 4 weeks postpartum among women veterans.Methods:We used 2016-to-2018 survey data from women veterans (N = 420), interviewed before and after delivery, who were enrolled in maternity care coordination at a national sample of Veterans Health Administration facilities. Using the social ecological model, logistic regression was employed to explore the relationship between breastfeeding at least 4 weeks and postpartum and maternal/infant characteristics, interpersonal dynamics, community influences, and system factors.Results:The rate of breastfeeding at 4 weeks postpartum was 78.6% among this sample of veterans. Self-employed participants were 2.8 times more likely to breastfeed than those who were employed outside the home. Participants who had been deployed at any point in their military career were twice as likely to breastfeed compared with those who never deployed. In this study sample, race independently predicted lower rates of breastfeeding, with African American participants being 48% less likely to breastfeed as compared with white participants.Conclusion:Our analysis suggests significant racial disparities in breastfeeding within veteran populations utilizing Veterans Health Administration, despite access to multiple sources of support from both the Veterans Health Administration and the community.
Shimrit Keddem

Disparities in Donor Human Milk Supplementation Among Well Newborns

2 hónap 2 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Donor human milk supplementation for healthy newborns has increased. Racial-ethnic disparities in supplementation have been described in the neonatal intensive care unit but not in the well newborn setting.Research aim:The aim of this study was to identify maternal characteristics associated with donor human milk versus formula supplementation in the well newborn unit.Methods:This retrospective cohort study includes dyads of well newborns and their mothers (N = 678) who breastfed and supplemented with formula (n = 372) or donor human milk (n = 306) during the birth hospitalization at a single hospital in the midwestern United States. Maternal characteristics and infant feeding type were extracted from medical records. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to examine associations between maternal characteristics and feeding type.Results:Nonwhite women were less likely to use donor human milk. Compared to non-Hispanic white women, the largest disparity was with Hispanic (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.28, 95% CI [0.12, 0.65]), then non-Hispanic black (adjusted OR = 0.32, 95% CI [0.13, 0.76]) and Asian women (adjusted OR = 0.34, 95% CI [0.16, 0.74]). Lower donor human milk use was associated with primary language other than English and public versus private insurance.Conclusion:The goal of improving public health through breastfeeding promotion may be inhibited without targeting donor human milk programs to these groups. Identifying the drivers of these disparities is necessary to inform person-centered interventions that address the needs of women with diverse backgrounds.
Laura R. Kair

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Table of Contents for Journal of Human Lactation. List of articles from ahead of print issues.
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