Influence of Homogenization in the Physicochemical Quality of Human Milk and Fat Retention in Gastric Tubes

1 nap 10 óra ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:The retention of human milk nutrients in gastric tubes used to feed premature infants is a challenge to be overcome.Research Aims:To evaluate (1) the performance of six homogenizers (mixing processor, piston valve, ultrasonic bath, ultraturrax, stirring mixer, and ultrasound probe) for the fat retention reduction in gastric tubes; (2) the influence of the best homogenization conditions on the fatty acid and protein profiles of human milk; and (3) the cost/benefit ratio for the inclusion of homogenization as a new step in human milk processing.Methods:The influence of different levels and times of homogenization on reducing fat retention of human milk in probes was evaluated in this comparative prospective cross-sectional study. After homogenization, human milk flowed through a gavage and infusion pump apparatus used for feeding. Fat content was quantified before and after feeding. The techniques that reduced fat globule sizes and/or promoted a lower percentage of fat holding were evaluated for efficiency, variations in the fatty acid and protein profiles, and energy density and operating costs.Results:Homogenization led to a reduction in fat retention in feeding probes. The mixer processor and the ultrasound probe reduced fat retention by 99.23% (SD = 0.07) and 99.95% (SD = 0.02), respectively, and did not negatively influence fatty acid and protein profiles. The mixer processor demonstrated low energy density and low cost for human milk processing.Conclusion:Homogenization promoted reduced fat retention in the feed probe and could help maintain fat nutrients of human milk during enteral feeding.
Kely de Paula Correa

Human Milk Antibodies Against SARS-CoV-2: A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study

1 nap 10 óra ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Human milk contains antibodies against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) following Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). These antibodies may serve as protection against COVID-19 in infants. However, the evolution of these human milk antibodies over time is unclear.Research Aim:To elucidate the evolution of immunoglobulin A (IgA) against SARS-CoV-2 in human milk after a SARS-CoV-2 infection.Methods:This longitudinal follow-up study included lactating mothers (N = 24) who had participated in the COVID MILK study. To assess the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, serum and human milk samples were collected 14–143 days after the onset of clinical symptoms related to COVID-19. Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay was used to detect antibodies against the ectodomain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.Results:SARS-CoV-2 antibodies remain present up to 5 months (143 days) in human milk after onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 IgA in human milk seems to gradually decrease over time.Conclusion:Human milk from SARS-CoV-2 convalescent lactating mothers contains specific IgA antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein up to at least 5 months post-infection. Passive viral immunity can be transferred via human milk and may serve as protection for infants against COVID-19. Dutch Trial Register on May 1st, 2020, number: NL 8575, URL: https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/8575.
Hannah G. Juncker

SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies Detected in Mother’s Milk Post-Vaccination

4 nap 15 óra ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundThe Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has infected over 127 million people worldwide, with almost 2.8 million deaths at the time of writing. Since no lactating individuals were included in initial trials of vaccine safety and efficacy, research on SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in lactating women and the potential transmission of passive immunity to the infant through mother’s milk is needed to guide patients, clinicians, and policy makers on whether to recommend immunization during the worldwide effort to curb the spread of this virus.Research Aims(1) To determine whether SARS-CoV-2 specific immunoglobins are found in human milk after vaccination, and (2) to characterize the time course and types of immunoglobulins present.MethodsA longitudinal cohort study of lactating women (N = 7) who planned to receive both doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna SARS-CoV-2 vaccine between December 2020 and January 2021 provided milk samples. These were collected pre-vaccination and at 11 additional timepoints, with the last sample at 14 days after the second dose of vaccine. Samples were analyzed for levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific immunoglobulins A and G (IgA and IgG).ResultsWe observed significantly elevated levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and IgA antibodies in human milk beginning approximately 7 days after the initial vaccine dose, with an IgG-dominant response.ConclusionsMaternal vaccination results in SARS-CoV-2 specific immunoglobulins in human milk that may be protective for infants.
Jill K. Baird

The Influence of Breastfeeding Educational Interventions on Breast Engorgement and Exclusive Breastfeeding: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

2 hét 6 nap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundBreast engorgement and breast pain are the most common reasons for the early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding by mothers.Research Aims(1) To examine the influence of breastfeeding educational interventions on breast engorgement, breast pain, and exclusive breastfeeding; and (2) to identify effective components for implementing breastfeeding programs.MethodsRandomized controlled trials of breastfeeding educational interventions were searched using five English and five Chinese databases. Eligible studies were independently evaluated for methodological quality, and data were extracted by two investigators. In total, 22 trials were identified, and 3,681 participants were included. A random-effects model was used to pool the results, and a subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis were conducted.ResultsBreastfeeding education had a significant influence on reducing breast engorgement at postpartum 3 days (odds ratio [OR]: 0.27, 95% CI [0.15, 0.48] p < .001), 4 days (OR: 0.16, 95% CI [0.11, 0.22], p < .001), and 5–7 days (OR: 0.24, 95% CI [0.08, 0.74], p = .013) and breast pain (standardized mean difference: −1.33, 95% CI [−2.26, −0.40]) at postpartum 4–14 days. Participants who received interventions had higher odds of exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding educational interventions provided through lecture combined with skills practical effectively reduced breast engorgement (OR: 0.21; 95% CI [0.15, 0.28]; p = .001) and improved exclusive breastfeeding at postpartum 1–6 weeks (OR: 2.16; 95% CI [1.65, 2.83]; p = .001).ConclusionsBreastfeeding educational interventions have been effective in reducing breast engorgement, breast pain, and improved exclusive breastfeeding. A combination of knowledge and skill-based education has been beneficial for sustaining exclusive breastfeeding by mothers.
Mega Hasanul Huda

The Levels of SARS-CoV-2 Specific Antibodies in Human Milk Following Vaccination

1 hónap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines are being administered around the world; however, lactating women were excluded from SARS-CoV-2 vaccine trials. Therefore, knowledge about the effect of vaccination in this specific group is limited. This information is essential to empower lactating women to make a well-informed decision on their choice for vaccination. After natural infection, SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies are present in human milk, which might offer protection for her newborn. The dynamics of these antibodies in human milk following vaccination remain to be elucidated.Research AimTo determine the effect of vaccination with BNT162b2 on the levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA in human milk.MethodsIn this prospective longitudinal study, we included lactating women who received the BNT162b2 vaccine. Human milk samples were collected prior to vaccination and 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 days after both vaccine doses. Samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2.ResultsIn total, 366 human milk samples from 26 lactating women were analyzed. A biphasic response was observed, with SARS-CoV-2 specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) starting to increase between day 5 and 7 after the first dose of the vaccine. After the second dose, an accelerated IgA antibody response was observed.ConclusionAfter vaccination with the mRNA-based BNT162b2 vaccine, a SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody response was observed in human milk. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA after vaccination is important as antibodies are transferred via human milk, and thereby might provide protection to infants against COVID-19.
Hannah G. Juncker

Lactation Consultation by an International Board Certified Lactation Consultant Improves Breastfeeding Rates for Mothers With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

1 hónap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundIn patients with gestational diabetes, breastfeeding decreases the lifetime risk of Type 2 diabetes by half. Lactation consultation has been shown to increase breastfeeding rates in the general population but has not been assessed in a gestational diabetes population.Research AimsTo determine if (1) a postpartum International Board Certified Lactation Consultant (IBCLC) consultation during delivery hospitalization improved inclusive (any) or exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge and 3 months postpartum in participants with GDM; and if (2) obstetrical providers’ acknowledgement of maternal feeding preference affected the rates of IBCLC consultation for patients.MethodsThis was a retrospective, comparative, secondary analysis of a prospective cohort (N = 517) study of women gestational diabetes. Participants who received a IBCLC consultation (n = 386; 74.5%) were compared to those who did not (n = 131; 25.5%). Baseline demographics, antepartum characteristics, neonatal information, mode of infant feeding at hospital discharge and 3 months postpartum, and IBCLC consultation during postpartum hospitalization were measured.ResultsAfter adjusting for baseline differences, participants who received an IBCLC consultation were more likely to report any breastfeeding at postpartum discharge (aOR 4.87; 95% CI [2.67, 8.86]) and at 3 months postpartum (aOR 5.39; 95% CI [2.61, 11.16]) compared to participants who did not. However, there was no difference in exclusive breastfeeding rates between those who did and did not receive IBCLC consultation.ConclusionInpatient IBCLC consultation during the immediate postpartum period was associated with improved rates of any breastfeeding in participants with GDM.
Laurie Beth Griffin

Changes in Antisecretory Factor in Human Milk During the Postpartum and Length of Gestation

1 hónap 3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundPreterm infants are more susceptible to inflammatory complications than term infants. Human milk contains numerous bioactive components protecting the newborn infant. Antisecretory factor, a protein regulating secretory and inflammatory processes by complex binding with complement factors, is present in human milk.Research AimsTo describe antisecretory factor (1) in mother’s own milk in term and preterm infants; and (2) in donor milk before and after Holder pasteurization.MethodsThe study was prospective, longitudinal, explorative, and descriptive. Antisecretory factor-compleasome was determined using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in longitudinal human milk samples over 12 weeks from mothers (N = 87) of term (n = 41) and of preterm (n = 46) infants and 20 anonymized donor human milk samples before and after Holder pasteurization.ResultsAntisecretory factor-compleasome was overall higher in colostrum versus mature milk (p < .001) and no difference was found in term or preterm colostrum (p = .82). In mature milk, compleasome was higher and more variable in the preterm group (p = .01). After Holder pasteurization, compleasome levels increased (p < .001).ConclusionAntisecretory factor followed the pattern of other immunological factors with high levels in colostrum. After preterm birth, levels of antisecretory factor were higher and more variable in mature milk. Holder pasteurization did not degrade antisecretory factor, indicating preserved anti-inflammatory properties in donor human milk.
Anna Gustafsson

An Interview With Gabrielle Palmer, Campaigner Author and Nutritionist, Who Learned From Women Around the World

1 hónap 4 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Gabrielle Palmer has written, taught, and campaigned about infant nutrition issues, particularly the unethical marketing of baby foods, since the 1970s. Her seminal book, The Politics of Breastfeeding: When Breasts are Bad for Business, has guided many breastfeeding advocates for over 40 years through three editions and multiple printings. As a breastfeeding counsellor during the 1970s, she helped establish the United Kingdom’s advocacy pressure group Baby Milk Action. She worked as a volunteer in Mozambique during the 1980s. During the 1990s she co-directed the International Breastfeeding Practice and Policy course at the Institute of Child Health, University College London, until she went to live for 2 years in China. Over the years, she has worked for various health and development agencies, including serving as HIV and Infant Feeding Officer for the United Nations Children’s Fund, New York, and also taught at The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM). She is a mother and a grandmother. (This is a verbatim interview that has been edited for readability: MA = Maryse Arendt; GP = Gabrielle Palmer).
Gabrielle Palmer

Advertising of Human Milk Substitutes in United Kingdom Healthcare Professional Publications: An Observational Study

2 hónap 1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundInappropriate marketing of human milk substitutes negatively influences efforts to protect breastfeeding. Although healthcare professionals can positively influence infant feeding decisions, government regulations permit manufacturers to communicate messages to them through advertising.Research Aims(1) To identify the extent of human milk substitute advertising in publications aimed at United Kingdom healthcare professionals and (2) to describe compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes and United Kingdom Formula and Follow-on Formula Regulations.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional observational study. We reviewed publications targeting healthcare professionals working with families in the United Kingdom (N = 19). Quantity and type of human milk substitute advertisements, as a proportion of all advertising, in each publication were recorded. All unique advertisements were double assessed for compliance.ResultsHuman milk substitute advertising was found in nine (47%) of the 19 publications (four affiliated with professional associations), making up 10.3% (n = 196) of these publications’ total advertising. Of human milk substitute advertisements found, 65.4% (n = 110) were for products used to manage cows’ milk protein allergy. Of the 32 unique human milk substitute advertisements found, none complied with the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes or United Kingdom Formula and Follow-on Formula Regulations.ConclusionsMany healthcare professionals’ publications had non-compliant human milk substitute advertisements. There is an urgent need to ensure full compliance with international and local regulation in future advertisements and to consider whether advertisements are justified at all.
Natalie Hickman

Antibodies Against SARS-CoV-2 in Human Milk: Milk Conversion Rates in the Netherlands

2 hónap 2 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundIt has been demonstrated that human milk from mothers who have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contains antibodies against the virus, which could play an important role in protecting the recipient infant against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Seroconversion is measured frequently around the world, but the milk conversion rate is unknown.Research AimsTo determine (1) the prevalence and (2) the dynamics of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in human milk amongst lactating mothers in the Netherlands.MethodsIn this large prospective cohort study, lactating mothers (N = 2312) were included between October 12, 2020 and February 24, 2021. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine levels of IgA antibodies in human milk and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in serum against the ectodomain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.ResultsA total of 691 (30.6%) participants had SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in human milk and/or serum. Of these participants, 524 (23.1%) had IgA antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in human milk, and 356 (15.7%) had IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in serum. A total of 199 (8.8%) participants had antibodies in both human milk and serum. SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA antibodies in human milk remain present at least 10 months after a polymerase chain reaction confirmed infection.ConclusionThe prevalence of IgA antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in human milk was 23.1% in our cohort. This high prevalence of antibodies in human milk might lead to passive immunity in many breastfed infants and may serve as protection against COVID-19.
Hannah G. Juncker

Ellenőrizve

9 óra 6 perc ago
Table of Contents for Journal of Human Lactation. List of articles from ahead of print issues.
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