Healthcare Professionals’ Breastfeeding Attitudes and Hospital Practices During Delivery and in Neonatal Intensive Care Units: Pre and Post Implementing the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative

1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative represents a global effort to support breastfeeding. Commitment to this program has been associated with the longer duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding and improvements in hospital practices. Further, healthcare professionals’ breastfeeding attitudes have been associated with the ability to provide professional support for breastfeeding.Research Aims:To determine healthcare professionals’ breastfeeding attitudes and hospital practices before and after the implementation of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.Methods:Using a quasi-experimental pretest–posttest study design, healthcare professionals (N = 131) from the single hospital labor and delivery, maternity care, and neonatal intensive care were recruited before and after the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative intervention during 2017 and 2019. Breastfeeding attitudes with the validated Breastfeeding Attitude Questionnaire, breastfeeding-related hospital practices, and background characteristics were collected.Results:The healthcare professionals’ breastfeeding attitude scores increased significantly after the implementation of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, difference = 0.16, (95% CI [0.13, 0.19]) and became breastfeeding favorable among all professional groups in each study unit. Positive changes in breastfeeding-supportive hospital practices were achieved. The infants had significantly more frequent immediate and uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact with their mothers. The rate of early breastfeeding, as well as the number of exclusively breastfed infants, increased.Conclusions:After the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative and Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative for neonatal wards (Neo-BFHI) interventions were concluded, we found significant improvements in the breastfeeding attitudes of healthcare professionals and in breastfeeding-related care practices.This RCT was registered (0307-0041) with ClinicalTrials.gov on 03/03/2017.
Heli Mäkelä

Postnatal Unit Experiences Associated With Exclusive Breastfeeding During the Inpatient Stay: A Cross-Sectional Online Survey

1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Efforts to provide accessible and effective infant feeding support are advancing to set up new families to meeting their goals. However, data continue to be limited for understanding how inpatient postpartum support and experiences contribute to exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization.Research Aims:To explore postnatal unit experiences including skin-to-skin contact, overnight support, rooming-in, responsive clinicians, and understandable communication that correlate with early infant feeding outcomes among a sample of mothers who intended to breastfeed.Methods:This was a prospective cross-sectional survey study. Through secure online survey, participants submitted (N = 2,401) responses from November 2016 to May 2017 about their experiences with maternity healthcare and offered thoughts on the postnatal unit environment. Descriptive statistics were used to examine distributions of maternal characteristics, postpartum experience, and birthing facility characteristics.Results:Exclusive breastfeeding was positively correlated with the following postnatal unit experiences: mother did not ask that her infant be taken out of the postnatal unit room; infant staying in postnatal unit room except for treatment(s); mother got help from clinical staff when needed after pressing the call button; and nurse, midwife, and/or doctor always explained information to mother in ways that they understood.Conclusion:Postnatal unit experiences associated with exclusive breastfeeding during postpartum hospitalization were rooming in; parents who did not ask for their infant to be taken out of the unit room; whether mothers received timely help from clinical staff; and information was explained in a way they could understand.
Kristin P. Tully

Marina Ferreira Rea: A Militant Doctor Active in the Endless Fight for Breastfeeding as a Human Right - A Luta Continua!

2 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Marina Ferreira Rea is a Brazilian medical doctor. She has a masters and a doctorate degree in public health from the University of São Paulo (USP). She specialized in breastfeeding at Wellstart International, and completed post-doctoral research at Columbia University, New York, USA, focusing on working women and breastfeeding. She was a researcher at the Health Institute at Columbia University in New York, the Center for Population and Family Health, and at the postgraduate studies, Nutrition in Public Health, University of São Paulo, where she advised many students and published many articles and books (a few selected below). She was a Coordinator of International Breastfeeding Actions at the World Health Organization (Geneva), in the early 1990s, when actions like the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, breastfeeding counseling, and other courses were started. During this same period, the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) and World Breastfeeding Week were initiated. In 1981 she participated in the launching of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. Marina Rea is a member of the International Baby Food Action Network and its Latin American policy committee, and is the founder of the International Baby Food Action Network (IBFAN) Brazil group. Since 2017, she has been a member of the IBFAN Global Council. She is now retired but continues to volunteer as an IBFAN member. She has two daughters and four grandchildren. A more detailed curriculum vitae in Portuguese can be found here: http://lattes.cnpq.br/8193850878281835 (MR = Marina Rea; MA = Maryse Arendt)
Marina Ferreira Rea

Processing Human Milk to Increase Nutrient Density for Preterm Infants

3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Human milk is the optimal food for newborns. Choices to feed preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units are mother’s milk, donor milk, or formula. Preterm infants have better tolerance for human milk, but the lower caloric density of donor milk might not meet preterm infant growth needs. Preterm infants have higher protein and energy requirements with a limited stomach capacity. Therefore, there is a need for human milk with increased nutrient density.Research Aim:To concentrate donor milk to have a higher caloric and protein density while avoiding side effects of high osmolality by precipitating lactose at low temperatures.Methods:We investigated the results of volume reduction and lactose removal processes on the lactose, protein, osmolality, and viscosity of human milk. Donor milk was obtained from WakeMed Mothers’ Milk Bank. Homogenization and evaporative condensation were applied to samples (N = 36) before they were stored frozen overnight, followed by refrigerated centrifugation for lactose removal at 0 °C. Supernatants were separated and compared to the composition of controls.Results:A significant reduction of lactose (SW = -262, p < .0001) and osmolality (SW = -211.5 p < .01) was achieved in the concentrated milk without a significant protein loss from centrifugation (SW = -44.5, p = .49). A 30%–40% volume reduction is within the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended osmolality for infant feeding.Conclusion:Concentrating human milk in a milk bank setting for feeding preterm infants might be a simple and low-cost process to achieve a product with higher nutrient density and no non-human components.
Hande Z. Ulus

Breastfeeding Mother and Child Clinical Outcomes After COVID-19 Vaccination

1 hónap 1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Pre-approval clinical trials of the Pfizer/BioNTech messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccine, BNT162b2 did not include participants who were breastfeeding. Therefore, there is limited evidence about outcomes of breastfeeding mother–child dyads and effects on breastfeeding after vaccination.Research Aims:To determine: (1) solicited adverse effects (e.g., axillary lymphadenopathy, mastitis, and breast engorgement), which are unique to lactating individuals; and (2) systemic and local adverse effects of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine on mothers and potential effects on their breastfed infants.Method:This was a prospective cohort study of lactating healthcare workers (N = 88) in Singapore who received two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination (Pfizer/BioNTech). The outcomes of mother–child dyads within 28 days after the second vaccine dose were determined through a participant-completed questionnaire.Results:Minimal effects related to breastfeeding were reported by this cohort; three of 88 (3.4%) participants had mastitis, one (1.1%) participant experienced breast engorgement, five of 88 (5.7%) participants reported cervical or axillary lymphadenopathy. There was no change in human milk supply after vaccination. The most common side effect was pain/redness/swelling at the injection site, which was experienced by 57 (64.8%) participants. There were no serious adverse events of anaphylaxis or hospital admissions. There were no short-term adverse effects reported in the infants of 67 lactating participants who breastfed within 72 hr after BNT162b2 vaccination.Conclusions:BNT162b2 vaccination was well tolerated in lactating participants and was not associated with short-term adverse effects in their breastfed infants.Study Protocol Registration:The study protocol was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04802278).
Jia Ming Low

Microwave Heating of Human Milk With Direct Temperature Monitoring

1 hónap 1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Microwave heating can be effective in preventing cytomegalovirus infection transmitted via human milk. Temperature changes during microwaving using different containers, in different areas inside a container, or using milk from different mothers are not well studied.Research Aim:To determine temperature changes of human milk during microwaving using different containers, in different container areas, using different human milk, and in a 30-ml soft polypropylene bag (sachet) immersed in water.Methods:In this experimental in vitro study, human milk (100 ml) was poured into six different bottles. The temperature was monitored simultaneously at each bottle’s bottom and surface (microwaving at 600 W) and at nine places inside the container (microwaving at 500 W). Human milk (20 ml) from six participants was inserted into a sachet, then immersed in 80 ml of human milk or water in a bottle, and the temperatures inside and outside the sachet during microwaving (at 500 W) were monitored.Results:The temperature changes at the surface were significantly larger than those at the bottom. Temperatures at the bottoms of different bottles, of human milk from different participants, or inside and outside the sachet, did not differ significantly. No temperature outliers inside the bottle were observed.Conclusion:Microwaving at 500 W and 600 W for 60 s was not significantly different in temperature changes among different areas inside bottles or among milk from different participants. A small volume of human milk (up to 100 mL) can be heated using a sachet.
Yurika Yoshida

Protective Influence of Breastfeeding on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women With Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Their Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

2 hónap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:There is evidence that breastfeeding may provide protection against cardiovascular risk factors in mothers with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus and their children who were exposed in utero.Research Aim:To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies to ascertain the effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus and their children exposed in utero.Methods:Studies assessing conventional cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus and children exposed in utero stratified by breastfeeding/no breastfeeding or breastfed/not breastfed were included. Gestational diabetes mellitus was defined based on the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group definition or previous accepted definitions. Breastfeeding was defined as reported in each study.Results:The literature search yielded 260 titles, of which 17 studies were selected to be in the review. Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus who did not breastfeed had higher blood glucose (SMD: 0.32, 95% CI [0.12, 0.53]) and a greater risk of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus (RR: 2.08 95% CI [1.44, 3.00]) compared to women with no history. There were not enough studies to conduct a meta-analysis on the effects of breastfeeding on risk factors for cardiovascular disease among children exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus in utero.Conclusion:Breastfeeding appears to be protective against cardiovascular risk factors among women who experience gestational diabetes mellitus.
Maleesa M. Pathirana

Increase of Human Milk Fat Inducing Nutritional Ketosis in Exclusively Breastfed Infant, Brought About by Treating the Mother With Ketogenic Dietary Therapy

2 hónap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Introduction:Medicalized Ketogenic Therapy is commonly used to treat refractory epilepsy. Patients have varying degrees of seizure or symptom relief, responding at individual levels of ketone production. Typically, initiating the therapy necessitates the discontinuation of breastfeeding. Our case study mother was keen to continue breastfeeding if possible. We were able to achieve this by placing the healthy mother on a ketogenic diet and altering the composition of the mother’s own milk.Main Lactation Issue:Pediatric Medicalized Ketogenic Therapy is delivered through a ketogenic diet consisting of up to 90% fat, measuring of ingredients to 0.1 g matching a food prescription of fat, protein, and carbohydrate. We placed the mother on a less stringent ketogenic diet achieving 61% fat and measured both infant and mother’s blood sugar levels and ketones. The hypothesis was that changes would occur in the mother’s own milk fat content, and/or ketones would be passed directly to the infant. If therapeutic levels of ketones were reached in the infant and a reduction in seizures observed, breastfeeding could continue.Management Overview:Over 3 months we achieved a calorific increase of the mother’s mature milk by an additional 134%. The infant was successfully put into nutritional ketosis and visible seizures eliminated.Conclusion:Medicalized Ketogenic Therapy can be safely used to treat seizures of breastfeeding infants diagnosed with epilepsy, through management of the mother on a ketogenic diet. Significantly increasing the mature mothers own milk fat component could have implications for other areas, including faltering growth.
Charlene Tan-Smith

Providing Breastfeeding Support During COVID-19: A Survey of Staff Experiences

2 hónap 1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:The COVID-19 pandemic presents unique challenges to maternity settings. Its effect on providing in-hospital lactation support has not been well described.Research Aim:To describe the experiences of healthcare workers as they provided in-hospital lactation support during the pandemic.Methods:A prospective, cross-sectional, online survey evaluated healthcare providers working with postpartum women and newborns affected by COVID-19 at an academic center during March–June 2020. Providers were queried regarding the influence of COVID-19 and COVID-19-specific policies on providing lactation support. Questions assessed guidance received, perceived stress, difficulty providing care, and solicited qualitative responses. The constant comparative method was used to analyze qualitative data.Results:Of 108 providers, 70 (65%) completed the survey. Of 57 providing direct lactation support to women affected by COVID-19, most (n = 39, 67%) reported increased stress. Participants reported lower stress scores when receiving guidance through shift meetings or email compared to those not receiving this guidance [stress score with shift meeting guidance (M [SD]): 3.10 (0.88); score without guidance: 3.83 (0.66); n = 39, p = .009; score with email guidance: 3.79 (0.58); score without guidance: 4.50 (0.58); n = 18, p = .045). Qualitative responses (n = 67; 96%) identified three themes: visitor restrictions allowed less distraction during lactation support; physical separation disrupted maternal/infant bonding; workflow challenges resulted from policy changes and supply access.Conclusions:Most participating staff providing lactation support to women affected by COVID-19 reported increased stress. Ensuring written or verbal guidance may reduce staff’s experiences of stress. Efforts to optimize lactation support during COVID-19 should consider reducing distractions, physical separation, and logistic challenges.
Rachel Hoying

Ellenőrizve

12 óra 1 perc ago
Table of Contents for Journal of Human Lactation. List of articles from ahead of print issues.
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