Teleological Considerations: Human Milk Collection for Research

1 hónap 1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
We discuss the evolution and composition of breast milk and briefly describe how mammalian evolution resulted in lactation, which played a crucial role in infant growth and development. We focus on three teleological factors that significantly contribute to breast milk composition: (1) biological sex at birth, (2) gestational age, and (3) circadian rhythms. We also explain how these factors lead to variability in human milk composition. We emphasize the importance of standardizing the definitions of “preterm” and “term” to accurately study the effects of gestational age on milk composition. Finally, we discuss the role of the circadian clock in regulating lactation and the impact of breast milk on fetal and infant sleep. Investigators may integrate these critical factors when designing a research study that involves the collection of breast milk samples. Teleological factors greatly influence milk composition, and these factors may be considered when designing a study that requires breast milk. We provide both the rationale and application of solutions to address these factors.
Kelley Baumgartel

Conceptualizing the Commercialization of Human Milk: A Concept Analysis

1 hónap 1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Donor human milk is recommended when infants are unable to be fed their mother’s own milk or require supplementation. For-profit companies use technologies to create human milk products for infants in the neonatal intensive care setting without consistent guidelines and regulatory frameworks in place. This commercialization of human milk is inadequately conceptualized and ill-defined.Research Aims:The aim of this study is to conceptualize and define the commercialization of human milk and discuss the need for policy guidelines and regulations.Method:Using a concept analysis framework, we reviewed the literature on the commercialization of human milk, analyzed the antecedents and potential consequences of the industry, and developed a conceptual definition. The literature review resulted in 13 relevant articles.Results:There has been a surge in the development and availability of human milk products for vulnerable infants developed by for-profit companies. Commercialized human milk can be defined as the packaging and sale of human milk and human milk components for financial gain. Factors contributing to the commercialization of human milk include an increased demand for human milk, and consequences include potential undermining of breastfeeding. The lack of guidelines and regulations raises concerns of equity, ethics, and safety.Conclusion:The industry is rapidly growing, resulting in an urgent need for consistent guidelines and regulatory frameworks. If left unaddressed, there could be potential risks for donor milk banking, the future of breastfeeding, and infant and maternal health.
Heather Christine Rusi

The Influence of Prenatal Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy on Breastfeeding Behavior of Taiwanese Pregnant Women

1 hónap 2 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:The benefits of breastfeeding for mothers and infants are well known. However, in Taiwan, the average breastfeeding rate remains below the World Health Organization recommendations. Breastfeeding self-efficacy is a known predictor of breastfeeding.Research Aims:To determine: (1) the relationship of sociodemographic factors to prenatal breastfeeding self-efficacy, and (2) the relationship of sociodemographic factors and prenatal breastfeeding self-efficacy to breastfeeding behavior at 8 weeks postpartum among women living in Taiwan.Methods:This was a prospective cohort study of 206 pregnant women collected in an outpatient clinic located in Taiwan. The validated Chinese version of the Prenatal Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale (PBSES) was used to measure self-efficacy for breastfeeding during pregnancy. At 8 weeks postpartum, participants were contacted by telephone to obtain information regarding infant feeding method and duration.Results:The mean age of the pregnant women was 32 years, and the mean prenatal breastfeeding self-efficacy score was 78.6 (SD = 10.6). Scores differed across levels of maternal education, previous breastfeeding experience, and support systems. Prenatal breastfeeding self-efficacy scores were highest among participants reporting spouse support versus other types of support. Maternal age and prenatal breastfeeding self-efficacy were predictive of breastfeeding duration. A 1-year increase in maternal age was associated with a 6% lower likelihood of breastfeeding for at least 2 months postpartum, and a 1-point increase in the prenatal breastfeeding self-efficacy score was associated with a 14% increase in the likelihood of breastfeeding for at least 2 months postpartum.Conclusions:Prenatal breastfeeding self-efficacy may help predict breastfeeding continuation among Taiwanese women in the first 2 months postpartum.
Ya-Fang Teng

Supporting Direct Breastfeeding for a Tracheostomy-Dependent Extremely Premature Infant: A Case Study

1 hónap 2 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Introduction:The benefits of human milk for preterm infants are well documented. Complex medical conditions can limit the extremely premature infant’s ability to breastfeed and to receive human milk directly, yet these vulnerable infants may benefit most from receiving it.Main Issue:Extremely preterm infants are at risk for infections, digestive challenges, and chronic lung disease, and occasionally require a tracheostomy to facilitate weaning from mechanical ventilation. There is a risk of aspiration when orally feeding a child with a tracheostomy. This case study describes a tertiary neonatal team supporting a family’s direct breastfeeding goal in an extremely premature infant with a diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia requiring a tracheostomy.Management:Initially, the infant participant (born at 24 weeks and 3 days of gestation, with a birthweight of 540 g) was gavage fed with human milk. The interdisciplinary team collaborated with the family to guide the infant’s feeding goals, providing positive oral stimulation with soothers, oral immune therapy, and frequent skin-to-skin contact to prepare for future oral feeding. Within a month of the tracheotomy procedure, oral feeding was initiated, and direct breastfeeding with the tracheostomy tubing in place was achieved at 50 weeks and 1 day of age as a primary source of nutrition.Conclusion:The open dialogue between the family and healthcare team was the foundation for trialing direct breastfeeding for an extremely premature infant with a tracheostomy. While direct breastfeeding of full-term infants with tracheostomies has been previously described in the literature, this is the first case study of an extremely premature infant with a tracheostomy transitioning to direct breastfeeding.
Alanna Lakoff

The Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale–Short Form (BSES-SF): German Translation and Psychometric Assessment

1 hónap 2 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:German-speaking mothers have breastfeeding rates below the international breastfeeding recommendations. Previous research has found that breastfeeding self-efficacy is an important and modifiable predictor of breastfeeding outcomes, thus improving breastfeeding rates. The Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale–Short Form (BSES-SF) is used in many countries to assess maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. This instrument has not been available in German.Research Aims:To translate the BSES-SF into German and assess its psychometric properties among breastfeeding mothers up to 12 weeks postpartum.Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted online with 355 breastfeeding mothers recruited from breastfeeding groups through Facebook. The BSES-SF was translated into German using forward and back-translation. To test reliability, item-total characteristics, including Cronbach’s alpha, were examined. We used principal component analysis, as well as known-groups comparisons for evaluating construct validity, and examined the relationship between breastfeeding self-efficacy and demographic variables.Results:The mean age of participants was 32.4 years (SD = 4.32). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was .88 and corrected item-total correlations ranged between .37 and .73. Principal components analysis yielded one component with factor loadings >.40 and an eigenvalue of 5.62, which explained 40% of the total variance. In addition, known group comparisons provided further evidence for construct validity. There was no significant difference in BSES-SF scores in terms of demographic and obstetrics characteristics.Conclusion:Our results provide evidence that the German version of the BSES-SF is a reliable and valid tool for measuring breastfeeding self-efficacy among mothers in German-speaking countries.
Linda Maurer

English Translation of the Breastfeeding Knowledge Survey for Pediatricians

1 hónap 2 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable to adequately carry out their role in the support of breastfeeding, so assessing their knowledge of breastfeeding is vitally important. There are not English language validated questionnaires for pediatricians in the literature; however, in Spanish and Portuguese, there is the Breastfeeding Knowledge Survey (ECoLa, derived from Encuesta de Conocimientos en Lactancia). Our goal is to translate the ECoLa into English. The original survey consisted of true/false questions, including one with an image of a breastfeeding baby, multiple-choice questions featuring clinical cases, and two open-ended short questions. We used a translation approach that incorporated both forward and backward translations and a multidisciplinary committee to evaluate the translation process. During translation, four Spanish versions and seven English versions were considered prior to consensus approval of the final survey. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the English questionnaire and the original Spanish version was 0.85 (95% CI [0.60, 0.95]). A sample of 51 participants completed the survey, resulting in a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.78 for the English version (95% CI [0.70, 0.86]). The Breastfeeding Knowledge Survey is now accessible under a Creative Commons license, permitting its free re-use.
Miguel Menéndez Orenga

Developing an Instrument to Measure Public Health Nurses’ Competence Related to Breastfeeding Beyond 12 Months

1 hónap 3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Health professionals need adequate competence to support breastfeeding beyond infancy. There is no established instrument to measure health professionals’ competence regarding long-term breastfeeding. To respond to this shortcoming, the Long-Term Breastfeeding Competence Scale (LBCS) was developed.Research Aim:To develop and pilot an instrument that measures public health nurses’ competence related to breastfeeding beyond 12 months in order to provide adequate breastfeeding counseling for families.Methods:This study was conducted as a cross-sectional online survey on public health nurses working in maternity and/or child health clinics. The relevance and clarity of the LBCS were assessed by an expert panel (N = 6). Public health nurses (N = 197) completed the LBCS, which consisted of a knowledge and skills dimension and an attitude dimension. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the characteristics of the study sample. The conceptual validity of the knowledge and skills dimension was assessed using the dichotomous Rasch analysis, and attitude dimension using the exploratory factor analysis. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha. The distribution of the items was summarized by descriptive statistics.Results:According to expert panel evaluations, the LBCS was found to meet the requirements for relevance and clarity (S-CVI 0.90). The internal consistency of the instrument was at a good level (α = 0.796) and met the requirements set for a new instrument.Conclusion:The LBCS is appropriate to determine public health nurses’ competence related to breastfeeding beyond 12 months. The LBCS can be used to identify the need for education concerning breastfeeding beyond 12 months.
Niina Pöyhönen

“A Vulnerable Time To Be a Young Family in an Emergency”: Qualitative Findings From an Exploration of an Emergency Perinatal and Infant Feeding Hotline in Louisiana

1 hónap 3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Birthmark Doula Collective, a cooperative that provides doula and lactation services in the Greater New Orleans area, mounted an emergency response after two Category 4 storms: Hurricane Laura (2020) and Hurricane Ida (2021). The response included activating a no-cost emergency perinatal and infant feeding hotline. Both disasters coincided with a resurgence of COVID-19 infections in Louisiana.Research Aim:The aim of this study is to understand how an emergency perinatal and infant feeding hotline supported infant and young child feeding in emergencies during hurricanes in Louisiana.Method:This study used a cross-sectional, retrospective qualitative design in a population with low breastfeeding rates. We conducted a content analysis of 97 hotline call logs from Hurricanes Laura and Ida, focus groups with lactation support providers who staffed the hotline during either storm (n = 5), and interviews with mothers who called during Hurricane Ida (n = 2). Focus groups and interviews lasted 30 and 60 minutes, respectively. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis techniques.Results:Call logs revealed infant feeding needs (e.g., mastitis, low milk supply, relactation, and infant formula requests) and non-infant feeding needs (e.g., infant supplies, perinatal and infant care referrals, shelter information). Infant formula was the most requested supply during both hurricanes. Maternal participants discussed family vulnerabilities during Hurricane Ida. Staff described training and strategies to provide support while maintaining their own well-being.Conclusion:Providing a free emergency hotline service is one way to support pregnant and postpartum people and their families seeking infant feeding advice, supplies, and support in the immediate aftermath of a disaster.
Tyra T. Gross

Building Breastfeeding Research Relations and Beyond: An Interview With Fiona Dykes

1 hónap 3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Professor Fiona Dykes is Professor Emerita of Maternal and Infant Health at the University of Central Lancashire in the United Kingdom (UCLAN). Fiona has a particular interest in the global, sociocultural, and political influences upon infant and young child feeding practices; her methodological expertise is in ethnography and other qualitative research methods. She founded the Maternal and Infant Nutrition and Nurture Unit (MAINN) in 2000 which she led until she retired from her full-time professorship in 2020. Fiona established the associated MAINN Conference in 2007. The MAINN conference is a 3 day, international, peer reviewed event held bi-annually in the United Kingdom and, more recently, in alternate years overseas (Sydney, Australia; Falun, Dalarna, Sweden; and Florida, United States). The conference draws together key researchers in the field of infant and young child feeding from around the world. Fiona was a founding member of the journal Maternal and Child Nutrition. She is author of Breastfeeding in Hospital: Mothers, Midwives and the Production Line (Routledge) and co-author, with Dr Tanya Cassidy, of Banking on Milk: An Ethnography of Donor Human Milk Relations (Routledge). She is also joint editor of several books including Infant and Young Child Feeding: Challenges to Implementing a Global Strategy (Wiley-Blackwell) and Ethnographic Research in Maternal and Child Health (Routledge). This interview was conducted on April 20, 2023, by Dr. Tanya Cassidy, and is based on a verbatim transcription and edited for readability.TC = Tanya Cassidy; FD = Fiona Dykes
Tanya M. Cassidy

A Critical Review of Breastfeeding Instruments Derived From Self-Determination Theory

1 hónap 4 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Understanding the motivational factors that influence breastfeeding behavior is critical for addressing suboptimal breastfeeding outcomes. Self-determination theory has been used as a framework to understand these factors.Research Aim:The aim of this article is to identify and critically review breastfeeding instruments derived from self-determination theory and their subsequent uses in the literature.Method:This critical review was guided by Grant and Booth’s typological description. Eligibility criteria included full-text, peer-reviewed original instrument development and validation articles, written in the English language without limitation to specific years. Articles describing the use of the eligible instruments were also included. There were 164 articles identified initially, and four instruments were included in the final sample. Finally, five articles, including subsequent uses of the instruments were critically analyzed and an overview, assessment of validation, and analysis of subsequent use of each instrument is presented.Results:All instruments examine the degree of autonomy underlying breastfeeding motivation. The extent and quality of validation varied. Two instruments have been used in subsequent studies; one was adapted and translated into Turkish and used in three other studies, and another was used in full in one subsequent use and in part in another study. Three of four were initially developed for prenatal administration.Conclusions:Instruments derived from self-determination theory hold promise in exploring the autonomy underlying breastfeeding motivations. Researchers who wish to use or adapt these instruments should consider the instruments’ domains, validity, and administration. New measures are needed to explore other constructs from self-determination theory related to breastfeeding.
Kelsie Barta

SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Human Milk After mRNA and Adenovector-Based Vaccination: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1 hónap 4 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies exist in human milk expressed by lactating parents after vaccination. In the existing research, the effects of vaccine types on human milk are inconsistent.Research Aim:This study aims to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing observational studies to compare the positive rates of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in human milk according to mRNA and adenovector-based vaccination.Methods:PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier Science Direct and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for relevant articles published from December 30, 2019 to February 15, 2023. Observational studies were considered eligible provided they reported data on SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in human milk. The risk of bias in non-randomized studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool, the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) were used to assess risk of bias. Seven studies, including 511 lactating participants, were included in this review and meta-analysis.Results:The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 IgA is higher in mRNA vaccine groups than in adenovector-based vaccine groups (OR = 4.80, 95% CI [3.04, 7.58], p < 0.001). The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 IgG was higher in mRNA vaccines than in adenovector-based vaccines.Conclusions:Compared to adenovector-based vaccines, mRNA vaccines present a higher positivity rate of IgA and IgG in human milk after vaccination. In other words, mRNA vaccinations may offer breastfed children a higher level of protection than adenovector-based vaccinations. Further high-quality data is still required to substantiate these findings.
Xuan Li

Establishing Methods to Assess Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative Compliance Using the Global Standards and Women’s Self-Reported Experiences

1 hónap 4 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
The World Health Organization recommends assessing compliance with key clinical practices of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI; Steps 3–9) using birthing women’s self-reports. Globally, compliance is mainly assessed using health staff reports, and the use of women’s self-reports in selected countries has deviated from the Global Standards for the BFHI. Therefore, we aimed to provide insight into the appropriate method of incorporating women’s self-reports in assessing compliance with Steps 3–9 of the BFHI. We developed questions and coding algorithms for assessing compliance with Steps 3–9 based on Global Standards for BFHI compliance, and implemented them via a cross-sectional survey of 302 women who gave birth to a live baby in Sri Lankan hospitals. Compliance with specific practices within each of Steps 3–9 and overall compliance with each step were described as percentages. Compliance with specific practices and each BFHI Step ranged from 15.9%–100% and 7.0%–100%, respectively. Our findings particularly emphasize the potentially enhanced usefulness and robustness of assessing all specific practices within BFHI key clinical steps and not focusing only on one practice within a step, to derive more useful health service guidance globally for capturing BFHI compliance and its impact on breastfeeding outcomes. This method could be translated across multiple settings globally. It would enable more specific identification of care advancements required by health services to improve the effectiveness of breastfeeding support and address the prevailing undervaluing and under-use of women’s experiential data to evaluate and guide health service improvement.
Laavanya Lokeesan

Associations Between Breastfeeding, Maternal Emotional Availability, and Infant–Mother Attachment: The Role of Coparenting

2 hónap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Breastfeeding is a parenting practice that combines close intimate contact with the opportunity to be sensitive and responsive to the infant, and may have direct and indirect relations with infant attachment. However, researchers have produced inconsistent findings, suggesting there may be other mechanisms involved. Coparenting may play a significant role, as it has been consistently associated with mother–infant relationships.Research aims:The aims of this study were to examine: (1) whether breastfeeding would be directly associated with infant–mother attachment; (2) whether this association was also indirect, through mothers’ quality of caregiving; and (3) whether partners’ coparenting support moderates breastfeeding’s indirect association with attachmentMethods:This was a prospective, longitudinal study that drew data from a larger NIH-funded study on sleep and family relationships (R01HD052809). Mothers reported on their feeding practices and coparenting relationships. Independent observations were used to assess mothers’ emotional availability toward infants. A separate team of observers assessed infant–mother attachment.Results:Exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months, and longer duration of any breastfeeding across the 1st year, were directly associated with more secure infant–mother attachment. These associations were also indirect, through maternal emotional availability. Coparenting was a significant moderator, such that the influence of longer breastfeeding duration on improved emotional availability, and, in turn, on more secure attachment, was significant only for mothers who perceived coparenting quality to be low.Conclusion:Findings highlighted the importance of breastfeeding on both the quality of mothering and infant attachment, but also emphasized that coparenting support may be particularly important for mothers who are unable to breastfeed.
Christine Youngwon Kim

Ellenőrizve

17 óra 20 perc ago
Table of Contents for Journal of Human Lactation. List of articles from ahead of print issues.
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