New Validated Tool to Diagnose Breastfeeding Dysfunction

3 nap 2 óra ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Breastfeeding behaviors and experiences exist on a continuum. What differentiates normal from dysfunctional is defined by frequency and severity. No current validated tool addresses the subjective experience of dyads with a predictive score that can be followed over time.Research Aim:To create and validate a self-report tool to assess breastfeeding and evaluate its ability to predict risk of breastfeeding dysfunction.Methods:This study used a cross-sectional design to determine the validity of a novel instrument to assess breastfeeding dysfunction. We gave the initial questionnaire to 2085 breastfeeding dyads. We assessed content validity by comparison with other tools. We used exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation for concept identification and Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency. We employed logistic regression to assess the tool’s ability to differentiate between normal breastfeeding and breastfeeding dysfunction.Results:Factor analysis mapped 17 questions to four concepts to create a score (FLIP; flow, latch, injury [to the nipple], and post-feed behavior). Internal consistency and reliability of the scores in these concepts were acceptable (Cronbach’s alpha ≥ 0.087 for all measures). A logistic regression model that controlled for infant age, with a breastfeeding dysfunction risk classification threshold of 60%, yielded a correct classification of 88.7%, with 93.1% sensitivity, 64.6% specificity, and a 6.5% false positive rate.Conclusions:The FLIP score was determined to be a valid and reliable instrument for quantifying the severity of breastfeeding dysfunction in children under 1 year old. Further studies will assess its usefulness in the management of breastfeeding dysfunction.
Rajeev Agarwal

Buprenorphine-Naloxone Maintenance and Lactation

5 nap 1 óra ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Breastfeeding among lactating people with opioid use disorder taking buprenorphine monotherapy is generally accepted, as low concentrations of buprenorphine and metabolites in human milk have been well-established. The use of buprenorphine-naloxone for pregnant and lactating people with opioid use disorder is expanding and there is no information available regarding the concentrations of naloxone and their metabolites in human milk to recommend the use of this combination medication during lactationResearch Aims:To determine the concentrations of buprenorphine and naloxone and their primary metabolites in human milk, maternal plasma, and infant plasma, among lactating buprenorphine-naloxone maintained people and their infants.Methods:Four lactating buprenorphine-naloxone maintained people provided plasma and human milk samples on Days 2, 3, 4, 14, and 30 postpartum. Infant plasma was obtained on Day 14.Results:Concentrations of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine and their glucuronide metabolites were present in maternal plasma and human milk at low concentrations, consistent with previous research in lactating buprenorphine monotherapy participants. Naloxone was not detected, or was detected at concentrations below the limit of quantification, in maternal plasma and in all except one human milk sample at Day 30. Naloxone was not detected or detected at concentrations below the limit of quantification in all infant plasma samples.Conclusion:Results support the use of buprenorphine-naloxone by lactating people who meet appropriate criteria for breastfeeding.
Lauren M. Jansson

Development and Validation of a Breastfeeding Health Literacy Scale (BFHLS) for Taiwanese Pregnant Women

1 hét 2 nap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Breastfeeding is the best source of nutrition for infants. Health literacy is a critical factor affecting breastfeeding rates.Research Aims:The aim of this research was to develop and test the Breastfeeding Health Literacy Scale to determine its validity and reliability.Methods:This study featured a cross-sectional telephone survey design. Researchers reviewed the literature and used expert opinions to develop the content-validated 30-item Breastfeeding Health Literacy Scale covering five dimensions. We examined internal consistency, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis to assess reliability and construct validity. A Taiwanese government organization provided potential participants’ contact information. After mailing an invitation letter, researchers phoned all participants to invite participation, obtain oral consent and complete a Breastfeeding Health Literacy Scale and collect demographic data.Results:Participants (N = 300) had a mean age of 31.8 (SD = 4.66) years. The item-level content validity index was 0.67 to 1.00 and scale-content validity index was 0.94. After performing exploratory factor analysis, three factors were extracted. Examining content factor analysis for the three factors resulted in χ2/df = 2.05; p < .001; goodness of fit index = 0.90; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.96; and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.06. Cronbach’s alphas on the total scale and the subscales ranged from 0.87 to 0.94. Women with multigravida, breastfeeding information from physicians and nurses, and previous breastfeeding experience had better breastfeeding health literacy.Conclusions:Psychometric analysis demonstrated that the newly developed 20-item Breastfeeding Health Literacy Scale is a valid self-assessment instrument. Improving breastfeeding health literacy during pregnancy could help enable breastfeeding success.
Hsueh-Fen Chou

Effect of Breastfeeding Education Program and Nurse-led Breastfeeding Online Counseling System (BMUM) for Mothers: A Randomized Controlled Study

1 hét 2 nap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Breastfeeding is very important for maternal and infant health. With first pregnancies, many pregnant people face obstacles to achieving their breastfeeding goals.Research Aims:We aimed to investigate the outcomes of a breastfeeding education program and nurse-led online breastfeeding counseling system (BMUM) on breastfeeding self-efficacy, attitudes about breastfeeding, breastfeeding problems, breastfeeding frequencies and postpartum depression.Methods:This study was a randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 36), or control group (n = 36). Assessments were conducted during pregnancy, between 32- and 37-weeks gestation, and on postpartum Day 1, Week 1, Week 3, and 6 months.Results:The means of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy–Short Form scores, and the Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) scores were similar between the groups at the first assessment (p = 0.733). IIFAS scores in the intervention group were significantly higher in the follow-up measurements on postpartum Day 1, Week 1, Week 3, and 6 months compared to scores in the control group (p = 0.006; p = 0.000; p = 0.002; p = 0.001) Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) scores were similar between the two groups at 1 week (p = 0.678). EPDS scores were significantly higher in the control group on Day 1 and at 3 and 6 months postpartum (p = 0.000; p = 0.038; p = 0.042). There was no statistically significant difference in breastfeeding problems between the two groups (p > 0.05 across breastfeeding problems examined). The mean values of breastfeeding frequency were similar between groups on Day 1, and significantly higher in the intervention group on follow-up measurements.Conclusion:The results of this intervention appear to promote positive attitudes toward breastfeeding and decrease feelings of postpartum depression. However, further randomized controlled trials are needed to support our outcomes.
Şahika Şimsek-Çetinkaya

Early Bloomers: A Nursing-Driven Program to Support Human Milk Feeding Among Late Preterm Infants in the Mother-Baby Unit

1 hét 4 nap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Late preterm infants have lower breastfeeding rates than term infants, yet few published interventions or guidelines exist to guide hospitals in managing them in the non-intensive nursery setting. Here we describe the development and implementation of an interdisciplinary, hospital-based, breastfeeding support program among late preterm infants not requiring intensive care. The Early Bloomer Program includes an order set applied at birth, immediate lactation consultation, availability of donor milk, parent education on late preterm infants, hand expression teaching and kit including spoon and video link, and daily interdisciplinary team huddles. The program was developed with staff input using Diffusion of Innovation Theory, and implemented first among early adopters before expanding to all postpartum nurses. Nursing staff received education on late preterm infant physiology and feeding, and trainings on the Early Bloomers program through various learning modalities during the year leading up to implementation. To further understand the strengths and weakness of the program, we surveyed nurses (n = 43). Nurses reported that they were more attentive to the needs of late preterm infants, more confident in their care, and more aware of possible complications and feeding needs. Areas noted in need of improvement included lack of overnight lactation consults and little involvement of labor and delivery staff in the program. The Early Bloomers program increased confidence in care and was well received by nurses. Well-designed clinical studies are needed to identify effective breastfeeding support practices for late preterm infants.
Katherine R. Standish

Community Pharmacists’ Current Practice and Educational Needs in Breastfeeding Support in Jordan: A Cross-Sectional Study

1 hét 4 nap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Improving breastfeeding practices is a worldwide priority. Pharmacists have the opportunity to actively promote breastfeeding and educate parents as well as the general public about its benefits.Research Aims:The aims of this study are to investigate Jordanian pharmacists’ present breastfeeding support practices and perceptions regarding their need for education and training in breastfeeding support.Methods:To examine sociodemographic characteristics of community pharmacists in Jordan and their current breastfeeding support practices and educational needs, a descriptive cross-sectional online (self-report) survey was conducted. Through social media, pharmacists working in community pharmacies in Jordan were recruited between August 2021 and February 2022. The level of breastfeeding support participants had been provided with was measured using eight items in a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 5 (Always) to 1 (Never). Each participant self-reported the frequency of advice/information given to breastfeeding women in each of these areas. Univariate and multivariable linear regression models were used to identify factors associated with the level of breastfeeding support.Results:Participants (N = 381) reported a high level of breastfeeding support, but expressed a need for training and education for further improvement. The breastfeeding support score of female participants was found to be 0.12 higher than that of males (Beta = 0.12, p = .02), 0.16 higher in married participants compared to non-married participants (Beta = 0.16, p = .03), and 0.10 higher in participants working in rural areas compared to those working in urban areas (Beta = 0.10, p = .04).Conclusion:While community pharmacists generally report a high level of breastfeeding support, our findings revealed demographic differences. Attention to specific areas of need might enhance what pharmacists could offer; however, additional research would be required to guide the specific educational content.
Mea’ad M. Harahsheh

Characterization of Three Cases of Primary Hypogalactia in Jalisco, Mexico

1 hónap 3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Introduction:Human lactation should be taken into account as an important issue for the international agenda. Despite advances in lactation information and knowledge, insufficient milk production is still a concern for mothers and health practitioners, including International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and others. Primary hypogalactia, or insufficient milk production is uncommon, but should be considered when there is poor weight gain and decreased urine output in infants despite good latch-on and suckling, or anatomic differences in the physical exam of the lactating breast.Main Issue:This case series presents three cases illustrating insufficient milk production resulting in infants who experienced significant dehydration and poor weight gain.Management:Primary hypoplasia was diagnosed by means of a thorough interview and physical examination that entailed a consultation with a physician who was also an International Board Certified Lactation Consultant.Conclusion:Awareness of an infant’s feeding needs and proper evaluation of a child’s health status is paramount if health care providers are to identify the important factors contributing to breastfeeding problems. In some instances, breastfeeding goals cannot be achieved, and then the provider’s role becomes support in coming to terms with persistent insufficient milk production, and coordinating appropriate supplementation to meet each baby’s nutritional needs.
Elena Sandoval-Pinto

Determining Knowledge and Opinions of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Nurses on Wet-Nursing and Human Milk Banks: A Cross-Sectional Study in Türkiye

2 hónap 2 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Wet nursing and human milk banks are vital sources of human milk for infants unable to breastfeed.Research Aim:This study aims to determine the knowledge and opinions of neonatal intensive care unit nurses regarding wet-nursing and human milk banks in Türkiye.Methods:This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 219 neonatal intensive care unit nurses using an online survey comprising 20 questions. The data were collected between August and September 2021.Results:Among the participants, 64.4% (n = 141) expressed that they would be a wet-nurse and 59.8% (n = 131) would search for a wet-nurse if necessary. Some, 47.0% (n = 103) of participants did not know if there were any human milk banks in Türkiye, 53.9% (n = 118) would like to be a donor if human milk banks were established, and 71.7% (n = 157) stated that the establishment of human milk banks should be supported. Religious concerns were the basis for reluctance to donate milk to human milk banks for 60% (n = 51) of the participants. Knowledge was greater and opinions about wet-nursing and human milk banks were more positive for participants with higher education, more time in the neonatal intensive care unit, or work at a tertiary care center.Conclusion:The approaches of neonatal intensive care unit nurses towards personally being wet-nurses and milk sharing were generally positive, although more information about human milk banks is needed. Religious beliefs are an important consideration when providing information about milk sharing.
Dilek Konukbay


5 óra 19 perc ago
Table of Contents for Journal of Human Lactation. List of articles from ahead of print issues.
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