A Comparison of the Timing of Hand Expressing of Human Milk With Breast Massage to Standard Care for Mothers of Preterm Infants: An Exploratory Pilot Using a Randomized Controlled Design

1 hét 2 nap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Globally, 10% of all births are preterm. Access to human milk via manual breast expression is required to reduce the incidence of adverse outcomes related to prematurity. However, there is little evidence to recommend optimum timing to commence breast expression in mothers of preterm infants or the most effective method.Research Aims:(1) To test feasibility of recruitment and compliance to the protocol and (2) to determine influence of using hand expressing and breast massage on milk production, engorgement, mastitis, and breastfeeding status at 3 months.Methods:This study was an exploratory parallel two-group, pilot randomized controlled trial. Mothers of preterm infants at a metropolitan maternity hospital in Queensland Australia (N = 31) were randomized to receive either hand expressing and breast massage within the 1st hr of birth or standard care, hand expressing within 6 hr of birth, to determine the influence on milk production, engorgement, mastitis, and breastfeeding status at 3 months.Results:Feasibility targets were not met; however, valuable learning from this trial uncovered barriers facing midwives in the birth suite to commencing expressing in the 1st hr of birth. There was no difference in occurrence of secondary outcomes, although trends support future study.Conclusions:Overall, unpredictability of preterm birth influenced our ability to recruit participants. Important directions for future study design would benefit from incorporating expressing times up to 6 hr with a replicable breast massage.
Loretta A. Anderson

Experiences of At-Risk Women in Accessing Breastfeeding Social Support During the Covid-19 Pandemic

3 hét 4 nap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:With strict public health measures implemented in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many breastfeeding parents, who are within an at-risk population, have experienced limited formal and/or informal breastfeeding social support. In the Canadian context, the experiences of these women is unknown.Research Aim:To explore the experiences of at-risk postpartum breastfeeding women in accessing formal and informal breastfeeding social support during the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods:This was a prospective, longitudinal interpretive description study using mixed methods. Data were gathered using an online survey and one 52–112-min semi-structured interview at 12-weeks postpartum. At-risk breastfeeding participants were those who lack social support and had at least one of the following: age < 25 years; experiencing or had experienced intimate partner violence; or of low income. We sought participants’ experiences of accessing breastfeeding social support during the first few months of the COVID-19 pandemic/lockdown. Seven participants completed the survey and the interview.Results:Participants identified that the COVID-19 pandemic created barriers to accessing formal and informal breastfeeding social support, which stemmed from public health restrictions and difficulties communicating online with families and healthcare providers. Additionally, participants identified that the COVID-19 pandemic/lockdowns facilitated feelings of connectedness, protection, and resiliency.Conclusion:We provide preliminary insight into the experiences of trying to access breastfeeding social support during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future researchers should seek to prioritize improved communication and resources in supporting breastfeeding during COVID-19 and future pandemics/lockdowns.
Emila Siwik

Etonogestrel Implant in the Postpartum Period and its Impact on Biochemical Markers in Secretory Activation: A Pilot Study

3 hét 4 nap ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Secretory activation is characterized biochemically in human milk by a fall in sodium concentration, an increase in potassium concentration, and a decreased sodium to potassium ratio. These markers can be used to identify a delay in secretory activation which can result from hormonal birth control.Research Aim:To evaluate if the insertion of the Etonogestrel implant early in the postpartum period would delay the time to secretory activation as measured by biochemical markers.Methods:We conducted a prospective, longitudinal, non-randomized, observational cohort study. Women with singleton pregnancies were identified as wanting either no birth control or the Etonogestrel implant in the postpartum period. Human milk samples were collected starting at 12 hours after delivery, and then in 12-hour increments. Samples were tested for sodium and potassium levels.Results:As in the unadjusted models, there was evidence of a difference in sodium levels at two days postpartum, with the sodium level higher by 32.29 mM (95% CI [7.39, 57.20], p = .013) in the implant group than in the no birth control method group. A difference at day 2 was observed in the ratio (sodium/potassium) levels, with a higher mean ratio in the implant group by 2.49 (95% CI [0.14, 4.85], p = .039). For potassium levels, the only difference was observed at day 4, with lower values in the implant group (p = .045).Conclusion:The transition from colostrum to copious milk secretion is delayed by the early insertion of the Etonogestrel device. This is evidenced by the delay in biochemical markers normally seen in secretory activation.
Wesley Nilsson

Colostrum Use and the Immune System of Premature Newborns: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1 hónap 1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Human colostrum has been used in a number of investigations when preterm human infants cannot, for any reason, breastfeed directly from their mothers. One of the growing fields in these investigations is colostrum therapy, which consists of exposing the oropharyngeal mucosa of these preterm newborns to small amounts of raw colostrum.Research Aim:To critically review the scientific evidence about colostrum therapy in premature infants and to explore its influences on the immune system.Methods:This systematic review was performed according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA statement). The following databases were searched for potentially eligible studies up to March 10, 2021: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase. Two reviewers independently screened all titles, abstracts, and full texts for eligibility.Results:A total of 12 studies with 996 participants were included. A significant difference in lactoferrin levels in the urine was found (SMD 0.70; 95% CI [0.03,1.36]; p = .04; I² = 65% two studies, 112 participants, very low-quality evidence).Conclusion:Colostrum seems to result in increasing lactoferrin levels in the urine of premature newborns after 1 week of intervention.Clinical Trial Registration:The study was registered at PROSPERO with the number CRD42017073624, submitted on August 9, 2017.
Tamy Colonetti

A Qualitative Exploration of the Reasons for Expressed Human Milk Feeding Informed by the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Theory

1 hónap 1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:There is an increasing prevalence of expressed human milk feeding. The reasons for expressed human milk feeding of healthy term infants may differ from those for preterm infants. The process of adopting expressed human milk feeding for healthy full-term infants has not been well-described in the existing literature.Research Aim:To describe the reasons for, and antecedents to, expressed human milk feeding among Chinese women who used a high proportion of expressed human milk for feeding.Methods:A descriptive, prospective cross-sectional qualitative design was used. Participants (N = 25) who used a high proportion of expressed human milk feeding were recruited from a larger perspective cohort study in two public hospitals in Hong Kong. Semi-structured, in-depth, one-to-one interviews were conducted 2017–2018. Data collection and thematic analysis were guided by the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Theory.Results:The authors conducted thematic analysis and identified six core themes: (1) perceived maternal roles; (2) breastfeeding role models; (3) negative feedback from social networks; (4) negative direct breastfeeding experiences; (5) expressed human milk feeding as a solution to a problem; and (6) advice from health care professionals to express human milk. These themes were consistent with the four antecedents of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Theory (e.g., physiological and affective state, vicarious experiences, performance accomplishments, and verbal persuasion).Conclusions:The main reason for participants to feed expressed human milk was experiencing difficulties with direct breastfeeding. Expressed human milk feeding was used as an immediate solution for breastfeeding problems. Strengthening breastfeeding support in the early postpartum period may decrease the perceived need for human milk expression.
Heidi Sze Lok Fan

The Influence of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative and Maternity Care Practices on Breastfeeding Outcomes

1 hónap 1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched in 1991 to promote breastfeeding through hospital policy. Researchers have reported breastfeeding improvements after hospitals became “Baby-Friendly.” In Hong Kong, the first public hospital was designated as a Baby-Friendly Hospital in 2016.Research Aim:To examine the influence of the BFHI on breastfeeding by comparing breastfeeding outcomes in a study cohort recruited before the implementation of the BFHI and a cohort recruited after its implementation.Methods:This was a quasi-experimental interrupted time-series design. Two cohorts of mother-infant pairs (N = 2369) were recruited immediately postpartum from four public hospitals in Hong Kong and followed up prospectively. Comparisons were made in five of the BFHI steps experienced in both cohorts and the duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding.Results:A higher proportion of participants from the post-implementation cohort breastfed and breastfed exclusively at all follow-up periods. Participants in the pre-BFHI cohort, on average experienced 3.10 (SD = 1.42) of the BFHI steps, whereas the participants in the post-BFHI cohort experienced 3.59 (1.09) of the BFHI steps. Half of the participants discontinued any breastfeeding by 13 weeks in the pre-BFHI cohort; more than half in the post-BFHI cohort were still breastfeeding at 6 months postpartum (p < .001). Giving only human milk in the first 48 hr of delivery and not providing pacifiers or bottles were associated with lower risk of not exclusive breastfeeding in both cohorts.Conclusion:Implementation of the BFHI was associated with improvements in breastfeeding practices and outcomes.
Jeffery SY Shing

Feeding Patterns of Healthy Term Newborns in the First 5 Days—The Glucose in Well Babies Study (GLOW)

1 hónap 2 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:The feeding patterns of healthy newborns have been poorly described.Research Aim:To determine the feeding patterns of healthy term newborns soon after birth, and if these differed with sex, gestation, and mode of birth.Methods:This study was a prospective, longitudinal observational cohort study. Term, appropriately grown newborns (N = 66) were fed according to maternal choice and details were recorded. Data were analyzed using generalized Poisson regression for feeding frequencies, and mixed model regression of log-transformed data for durations.Results:The participants completing the study had a M = 3589 g (SD = 348 g) birthweight, with a gestation age of M = 40.1 (1.2) weeks. All participants were breastfed; 23 (35%) also received expressed human milk and 10 (15%) received formula. Participants had fewer feeding sessions on Day 1, (M = 7.3 [1.9] sessions/day) increasing to (M = 9.4 [2.4] sessions/day) by Day 3, then reducing to (M = 9.0 [2.2] sessions/day) on Day 5, p < .001. The overall duration of breastfeeding sessions varied widely (Mdn = 29 [range = 1–447] min). Feed frequency but not duration was higher in males than females (M = 8.9, SE = 0.2 vs. 8.1, 02, sessions/day, p = .03), in newborns born ≥ 40 weeks’ gestation (M = 8.9, SE = 0.3 vs. 8.2, 02, sessions/day, p = .04), and in newborns born by Caesarean section (M = 9.4, SE = 0.3 vs. 8.4, 02, sessions/day, for vaginal birth, p = .003).Conclusion:Feeding patterns of healthy term newborns vary widely, but frequency increases during the first 3 days, and is greater in males, newborns born late term, and born by Caesarean section.Clinical Trial Registration:The Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Ref: ACTRN12615000986572. The study protocol is available online: http://hdl.handle.net/2292/32066
Deborah L Harris

Changes in Breastfeeding Exclusivity and Satisfaction During the COVID-19 Pandemic

1 hónap 2 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Because of its many benefits, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is a common public health goal. However, only 44% of infants aged 0–6 months are exclusively breastfed worldwide and, in the United States, only 26% of infants are exclusively breastfed for 6 months. The restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic may have reduced these rates even further.Research Aim:To examine the differences in breastfeeding exclusivity and satisfaction before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods:A cross-sectional, two-group survey design was used. Parents (N = 110) of infants born April 1 to December 31, 2019 (pre-pandemic; n = 69), or April 1 to December 31, 2020 (during the pandemic; n = 41), who received lactation support services from an urban academic breastfeeding clinic were surveyed.Results:Respondents who gave birth in 2020 (pandemic year) were no less likely to exclusively breastfeed for the first 6 months of their infant’s life compared to respondents who gave birth in 2019 (pre-pandemic year). After multivariable logistic regression, the odds of high breastfeeding satisfaction were 73% lower in respondents with infants born in 2020 than in respondents with infants born in 2019 (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.08, 0.89]). The strongest contributor to high breastfeeding satisfaction was a prenatal breastfeeding visit with an International Board Certified Lactation Consultant.Conclusions:Future research is needed to identify the specific pandemic-related factors that led to the difference in breastfeeding satisfaction between the two groups and to confirm the impact of prenatal International Board Certified Lactation Consultant visits on breastfeeding satisfaction.
Megan K. Oggero

Translation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Arabic Version of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form Among Women in the United Arab Emirates

1 hónap 2 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Breastfeeding self-efficacy as a construct has been theoretically and empirically linked to exclusive breastfeeding in studies globally using the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF). However, its application in the Middle East and North Africa region is limited, as it has not been validated.Research Aims:To psychometrically validate the BSES-SF among a sample of mothers in the United Arab Emirates.Methods:We psychometrically evaluated the Arabic version of the BSES-SF using a sample of mothers (N = 457) residing in the United Arab Emirates. We used translation techniques, item-test and item-total correlations, confirmatory factor analysis, tests of reliability, and tests of validity.Results:Item-test correlations of scale items ranged from 0.67 to 0.84, while item-total correlations ranged from 0.58 to 0.81. The confirmatory factor model assessed the 14-item scale to be unidimensional with satisfactory model fit indices. Our findings suggested the Arabic-language version of the BSES-SF was a reliable measure (α = 0.95) with strong construct and discriminant validity. BSES-SF scores significantly predicted exclusive breastfeeding (aOR = 1.04; 95% CI [1.02, 1.08]) and exclusive duration (β = .06; 95% CI [0.4, 0.08]), which suggested strong predictive, validity after adjusting for parity, maternal age, maternal education, and study site.Conclusions:We have provided rigorous evidence that the BSES-SF is a valid and reliable measure of breastfeeding self-efficacy among Arabic-speaking women in the UAE. Interventions designed specifically to increase breastfeeding self-efficacy among Arabic-speaking women may be a mechanism to increase the suboptimal rates of breastfeeding exclusivity occurring in much of the MENA region.
Hadia Radwan

“It’s Okay With Our Culture but We’re in a Different Place and We Have to Show Respect”: Marshallese Migrants and Exclusive Breastfeeding Initiation

1 hónap 3 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Pacific Islanders in the United States have lower initiation rates and shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding compared to other racial/ethnic groups.Research Aim:To describe infant feeding beliefs and experiences of Marshallese living in the United States.Methods:We used a prospective and cross-sectional exploratory, descriptive qualitative design with Marshallese participants (N = 36) residing in the United States between July 2019 and July 2020. Data were collected at 6–8 weeks postpartum. Our qualitative analytic approach integrated inductive and deductive techniques.Results:Participants’ mean age was 27.1 years (SD = 6.1), and 88.9% (n = 32) were born in the Marshall Islands. A majority of participants were single, widowed, or in an unmarried partnership (n = 28, 77.8%). Most participants had a high school education or lower (n = 30, 83.3%). Mean household size was 7.2 (SD = 2.8). Fewer than half of participants had no health insurance (n = 14, 38.9%), and almost all participants (91.7%) did not work at the time of data collection. Two themes emerged: 1) infant feeding initiation and practices; and 2) concerns over breastfeeding in public. The majority of participants’ infants received both human milk and formula. Participants described beliefs that breastfeeding in public was against American customs, which influenced their decision about breastfeeding in public.Conclusions:Our study was the first to document infant feeding beliefs and experiences of Marshallese living in the United States at 6–8 weeks postpartum. Findings will inform future health education programs.
Britni L. Ayers

A Comparison of Ultrasound Imaging Texture Analyses During the Early Postpartum With the Mode of Delivery

2 hónap 1 hét ago
Journal of Human Lactation, Ahead of Print.
Background:Breastfeeding is beneficial to infants. However, cesarean section is reported to be a risk factor for unsuccessful breastfeeding.Research Aims:(1) To extract discriminating data from texture analysis of breast ultrasound images in the immediate postpartum period; and (2) to compare the analysis results according to delivery mode.Methods:A cross-sectional, prospective non-experimental design with a questionnaire and observational components was used. Participants (N = 30) were women who delivered neonates at a center from September 2020 to December 2020. The participants underwent ultrasound examination of bilateral breasts 7–14 days after delivery. Ultrasound images were collected for texture analysis. A questionnaire about breastfeeding patterns was given to the participants on the day of the ultrasound examination.Results:No significant differences were found in texture analysis between the breasts of participants who had undergone Cesarean section and vaginal deliveries. The mean volume of total human milk produced in 1 day was significantly greater in the vaginal delivery group than in the cesarean section group (M = 350.87 ml, SD = 183.83 vs. M = 186.20 ml, SD = 184.02; p = .017). The pain score due to breast engorgement measured subjectively by participants was significantly lower in the vaginal delivery group than in the cesarean section group (M = 2.8, SD = 0.86 vs. M = 3.4, SD = 0.63; p = .047).Conclusion:Texture analysis of breast ultrasound images did not demonstrate difference between the cesarean section and vaginal delivery groups in the immediate postpartum period; nevertheless, cesarean section was independently associated with less successful breastfeeding.
Hyun Kyoung Lee

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16 óra 24 perc ago
Table of Contents for Journal of Human Lactation. List of articles from ahead of print issues.
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